Hoarding >> How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder

And then there's the odd story of Wolbachia. Most of us, I think, believe that genetics and evolution pretty much predetermine how we will reproduce ourselves. It seems unlikely that we have a choice about whether we procreate by mating with members of the opposite sex (as humans do) or How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder by occasionally splitting ourselves in two (as bacteria usually do). 

But it turns out that, even though an animal's reproductive behavior may not be of his or her own choosing, the behavior may not be a matter of genetics, evolution, or physiology either. Some time ago, entomologists studying wasps and wood lice (which most of us call sow bugs) noticed that some species of these insects reproduce parthenogenetically, that is, without males (in fact without mating) and produce How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder only (or mostly) female offspring.

The entomologists concluded that these wasps and wood lice had evolved this method of reproduction to gain some advantage beyond our current How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder understanding of biology,not to mention pleasure. The entomologists were wrong. This sort of sexual behavior in wasps and wood lice isn't normal. 

It's a disease, an infectious disease. Entomologists leapt to the wrong conclusion because of something they couldn't see, something hidden inside the wasps and the wood lice. Wolbachia pipientis,a bacterium and How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder obligate intracellular parasite, lives in the ovaries and testes of many insect species. 

As many as 16% of insects (some 2 to 5 million species) may be infected with one strain or another of Wolbachia. But the bacterium is only transmitted How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder vertically (mother to offspring), so only female insects can transmit the infection. To limit the number of male offspring,Wolbachia has developed ways to manipulate its host's sex life. 

Wolbachia interferes with the How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder production and function of hormones and changes infected male wood lice into female wood lice. In other insects,the bacterium induces a state of "cytoplasmic incompatibility between males and females, which prevents males and females from any productive mating. And in some wasps, it has completely eliminated males from the species. 

For these wasps to survive, the females must resort to parthenogenesis, and under these conditions, they can produce only female offspring. Wolbachiaisn't the only bacterium capable of this sort of sex selection by elimination of males or alteration of male behavior. At least five other species of bacteria similarly eliminate males from insect species to accelerate bacterial How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder transmission in the wombs of females.

Males turned into females, entire species of sexually inept insects, species of insects in which males have disappeared How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder altogether,all this aberrant behavior, all of these "behavioral disorders, can be cured with antibiotics, eliminated completely by any of a number of drugs that destroy bacteria. 

Yes, but that's ants and wood lice. Bugs. Mammals are a lot more complex than ants and wood lice, aren't they? Rats are intermediate hosts for another parasite, a single-celled, protozoan How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder called Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondiibegins and ends its life cycle in domestic cats. The immune response that cats mount against this parasite forces the parasite into very tough cysts that are shed in cats' feces. The cysts survive in soil for years waiting for an intermediate host, a rat, to eat them. Inside the rats,T. gondii How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder resumes its life cycle. 

The ultimate goal of the parasite is to complete the cycle by returning to its primary host, the cat. Cats do not have a How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder great fondness for dead animals. So T. gondii doesn't kill its rodent host. But rats have a general fear of cats and avoid the scent (and urine) of cats at all costs, which slows the transmission of T. gondii. To overcome this bottleneck, the How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder parasite has learned to make rats crazy. Rats infected with T. gondii show no fear of cat urine, not because they have no sense of smell, but because some of them develop an attraction,an often fatal attraction,to cat urine. They go mad and seem to invite their own deaths. Again, no dysfunctional family, birth defect, or blow to the head made these animals crazy. This madness has an infectious How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder cause. T. gondii infects people too. 

Gardening in cyst-infested soil, handling How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder infected meat, or emptying litter boxes used by infected cats can result in infection. In fact, nearly half the people in this world have T. gondii cysts in the brain.T. gondiihas never figured out a way to make How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder humans palatable to cats, but that doesn't mean people are unaffected by the parasite. In psychological tests, women withT. gondiicysts in the brain were more outgoing and warm-hearted than uninfected controls, and men How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder infected with the parasite were more jealous and suspicious than uninfected men,behavior with a twist, a protozoan twist. No one knows what drove Vincent van Gogh to take his own life; depression was part of it, certainly. But depression alone seems an insufficient explanation. In the year before his death, the painter enthusiastically How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder brought Paul Gaugin to join him in Arles. 

Less than 2 months later, van Gogh attacked his guest with a straight razor; then in remorse, How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder cut off his own ear and offered it to a local prostitute. In the same year, van Gogh painted "Sunflowers, a celebration of yellows and browns, and "Starry Night, a tableau of haunting blues and swirling stars, a portrait of the abyss itself. 

Within a few months of one another, he painted the inviting "Bedroom at Arles and a brutal self-portrait that leaves the viewer nowhere else to look. Later that same year, How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder he painted "Starlight over the Rhine and "Wheatfield with Crows. Those dramatic swings from euphoria to abject despair suggest bipolar disorder, manic-depression. 

At the height of his mania, van Gogh painted "Sunflowers. In the pit of depression, he painted his last work, "Wheatfield with Crows. Bipolar disorder is a "behavioral disorder, a mental disease of How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder unknown cause. Many of us imagine that in the bipolar patient, the crows are all inside the mind. We may be wrong. 

Perhaps it was all in van Gogh's head, all in his mind. But even if we are unwilling to change our thoughts about what "mind means, we may have to change our How To Deal With An Elderly Hoarder thoughts about what "all means.

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