Document restoration >> What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do

If the existing binding is too deteriorated to retain, What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do the book may be rebound in a binding made of new materials of conservation quality. A laced-in structure (Figure 4) is often chosen by conservators for books that are to be bound in leather.

When properly constructed this is a strong yet flexible structure, which provides adequate support for a book while allowing it to open fully and be easily read. The What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do term laced-in refers to the way the boards are attached to the text block: they are laced to the text block by the sewing supports to which the sections are sewn.

Although this structure can be used on books of any size, it is often chosen for large, heavy books because of the structural support it provides. This is a durable structure and, if made of good quality materials, will last a long time. An alternative to a leather-covered laced-in structure is a split-board What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do structure (Figure 5). 

The What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do term split-board also refers to the way the boards are attached to the textblock: stubs, which are sewn to the text block, are slipped into a split in each board and adhered in place. This structure is most often chosen for medium to large books because it provides adequate support for them. This structure can be covered in leather or cloth.

When What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do cloth is used it is a good alternative to a leather laced-in structure for some medium to large books because it provides adequate support and costs less to construct due to savings in time and materials. For lightweight books a case structure (Figure 6) is adequate.

In this type of binding the case (cover) is made separate from the text block and is attached to it by being adhered to the endpapers, either directly or by means of a hinge. This structure is not as strong as a laced-in or split-board structure and should be limited to light- to medium-weight What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do books. 

The What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do case is most frequently covered in cloth, although it can be covered in paper or leather as well. This structure takes less time to produce than a laced-in or split-board structure and thus costs less. When all the leaves in a book are extremely weak and/or brittle and require overall support, encapsulation in polyester film and post-binding may be appropriate (Figure 7).

Polyester film is a clear, inert plastic that provides excellent support for fragile What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do paper. Each leaf of the book is placed between two sheets of polyester film, and the film is sealed along all four edges. Ultrasonic welding is the preferred method of sealing the film.

If the leaves of a book are still in folio form, the folios will usually need to be cut along the fold to facilitate encapsulation. However, paper requiring What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do encapsulation is usually so fragile that any folds that once existed have already broken. 

Polyester film has an electrostatic charge. For this reason What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do encapsulation is not recommended for leaves that have loose, flaking, or friable media because the electrostatic charge may loosen media even more. The encapsulated leaves can be bound together in what is referred to as a post-binding.

Boards (covers) are attached to the encapsulated leaves by means of screw posts, which pass through the covers and polyester What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do film to produce an album-style binding. Although the boards can be covered in almost any material, they are usually covered in cloth.


Preparation of written and photographic records is a requirement of responsible conservation treatment for materials of value. The purpose of documentation is to record the appearance and condition of a book prior to treatment, describe the treatment that was done, and specify the What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do materials that were used in the treatment. 

The purpose is also to identify a What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do book that has been treated and to provide information helpful to conservators who may in the future treat that book further, especially as new improved techniques and materials become available.

Documentation includes a written description of the condition prior to treatment, a listing of the procedures and specific materials used in treatment, and a statement of where and when the What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do treatment was done. Written records are supplemented by photographs taken before, after, and sometimes during treatment. These records should be retained permanently.


Collation is an important part of documentation. In the context of the conservation treatment, this procedure includes careful checking of each page of a book to document the number and order of pages, plates, maps, etc.; to check for missing pages; and to note serious tears, stains, or other types of What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do damage or irregularity. 


This refers to the minimal amount of What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do treatment required to slow deterioration of a book. It excludes all cosmetic treatments and many structural repairs as well. For example, a book with detached boards and fragile paper may only be microfilmed, nonaqueously deacidified, and boxed. This level of treatment is most often chosen for books of limited value or for those that receive little use.


This refers to full treatment of both What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do pages and binding. It includes structural repairs and often cosmetic treatment as well. It frequently involves disbinding, surface cleaning, washing, aqueous deacidification, mending and guarding of pages, resewing, repairing the original covers and reattaching them to the text. If the original covers are too deteriorated to reuse, the book is rebound in one of a variety of binding styles (case, splitboard, or laced-in structure) and What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do titled. 

This level of What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do treatment is usually reserved for books of high value. Boxing is crucial to the preservation of many books. Boxes provide both structural support for a book and protection from dust, dirt, light, and mechanical damage.

Books with bindings of historic or aesthetic value, which should be retained as much as possible in their present condition, should be boxed. Damaged books, which are rarely used and do not warrant What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do treatment or repair of the binding, should also be boxed.

Boxes should be constructed of durable materials of conservation quality and should be custom made to fit a book's dimensions exactly. Both drop-spine (Figure 8) and phase boxes (Figure 9) are acceptable. Drop-spine boxes are preferable because they provide better support and keep books cleaner; however they are more expensive. Both types of boxes are available from commercial What Does A Forensic Document Examiner Do suppliers.

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