Wind Damage >> Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips

Roofing systems commonly rely on roof sheathing and bottom chords to provide lateral support for the roof trusses. Oliver and Hanson (1994) and Riba et al. (1994), agree that roofing systems could be considerably improved if simple secondary bracing were installed between Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips trusses. 

This would reduce the roof's reliance on diaphragm sheathing action alone to provide lateral support. This is especially important when roof sheathing is lost, because nothing remains to prevent truss collapse. Riba et al. (1994) observed that when properly anchored and braced, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips wood trusses transmitted wind loads to the rest of the building satisfactorily. 

FEMA (1992) makes the following recommendations regarding roofing systems: 1. Manufacturers of roof tile products should provide testing and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips verification of tile performance under realistic conditions. 

2. Quality control of roof tile installation should be improved by ensuring both consistent mortar pad placements and installation are in accordance Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips with manufacturers' requirements, as specified by the Code. Though this would improve the survivability of roof tile systems, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips continued debris impact will result in damage occurring from future wind storms. 

The roof should be marked off vertically and horizontally. Interlocking lugged or unlugged tile should be laid with minimum headlaps in accordance with Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips manufacturers' recommendations (2 1/2 - 3 1/2 inches minimum). Prefabricated eave closure strips should be used to elevate the butt end of the first, or eave, tile to attain the proper slope. 

A full 10-inch mason's trowel of mortar should be placed under each tile (under the pan section of "S" or barrel tile), beginning at the head of the tile in the preceding course. Each tile should be pressed down tightly in the Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips interlocking position so that the cover rests firmly against the lock of the adjacent tile. 

After the roof is laid up completely, traffic should not be allowed on the roof, and no work should be done on the structure that will create vibration in the framing or Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips roof sheathing. At least a 24-hour period is necessary to ensure proper set. Roof traffic should be prohibited for a minimum of 72 hours. 

All flashing should be sealed to the subroof for water tightness; otherwise, installation and flashing procedures are the same as those for mechanically fastened tile. 3. The design of more aerodynamic building shapes should be encouraged and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips promoted. 

More aerodynamic building systems reduce direct wind forces experienced perpendicular to windward planes of buildings and also the consequent effect of whirling air flows, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips called vortices, that accumulate at the corners and edges of the planes. 

The accumulation of both the direct and negative pressures resulting from these wind flows is particularly prevalent in the more abrupt or Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips orthogonal planes of gabled roof systems. 4. The use of braced truss roof systems that will sufficiently resist lateral forces independent of roof sheathing should be required. 

Roofing systems could be considerably improved if simple secondary bracing of blocking were to be applied within the truss network (thus relieving the roof's reliance on diaphragm sheathing alone). 5. Substituting hip roofs for gable-end is a particularly advantageous solution and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips should be encouraged. 

The construction of a hip roof results in an inherently braced roof system. 6. Venting with adequate openings to relieve induced internal pressures on roof structures is recommended. However, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips venting must be installed in such a manner that the entry of uncontrolled air flow is not allowed. Such uncontrolled air flow could result in a buildup of induced internal air pressure. 

Doors and Windows Modern homes are constructed with more and larger openings than older homes. Entry doors are often double, sliding glass doors replace regular doors, and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips attached garages often have double-width garage doors to hold two cars. The greater number and size of openings place homes at increased risk from hurricane forces. 

Sanders (1994) reports that Nearly every residential house or apartment [in south Florida] has at least one sliding glass door and frequently more, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips sometimes placed in adjacent walls. Sliding glass doors are at least 6 feet wide. Typical single family homes have attached garages many with double wide garage doors. 

Storm shutters for glass openings and doors are very uncommon. Failure of windows and doors exposes the entire structure to increased force and loads. Issa et al. (1994) estimate that an opening of only 5% in the windward side of a building will allow full pressurization of the interior, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips exerting uplift pressure on the roof, and horizontal pressure against the interior walls. 

Because storm shutters for glass openings and doors are very uncommon in south Florida, thousands of houses required interiors and furnishings to be completely removed and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips replaced because just one sliding glass door failed during Andrew (Sanders, 1994). 

Entry Doors During Andrew, double entry doors often blew out as a result of uncontrolled buildup of internal pressure (Oliver and Hanson, 1994). As described earlier, French and double doors were especially prone to failure. The most common failure modes were pullout of centerpins, and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips door leaf shattering near the pin. 

Pullout was more common with metal doors, while shattering was more common with wooden doors. Garage Doors Oliver and Hanson (1994) noted that garage doors tended to be blown in by hurricane-force winds. They recommended that doors be installed with stiffer vertical and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips horizontal members for reinforcement. 

Manufacturers should strengthen both the security locking system and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips door pin to glider track connections to reduce door rotation along the door edges. Individual single-car garage doors should be installed instead of double-car doors. Windows and Patio Doors During Andrew, 64% of the homes evaluated by Crandell et al. (1994) had significant window damage. 

Usually, simple plywood shutters would have provided adequate protection. Whether made of plywood or Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips another material, storm shutters offer the best protection against building envelopes being punctured at windows and at patio doors. Besides being breached by flying debris, glass patio doors often leak excessively in wind-driven rain (FEMA, 1986). 

For both debris and rain protection, FEMA recommends that multiple-panel sliding glass doors and windows be avoided, and that individual panel widths be no more than three feet. Further, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips FEMA recommends that total window and door openings be no more than 30% of a wall's total area. Patio doors must be properly installed. 

Wolfe et al. (1994) note that a 40 square-foot patio door is subject to a force of 2,000 pounds when exposed to a 117 mph wind. To adequately resist this pressure, 16d casing nails with a spacing of 20 inches o.c. would be needed. To reduce window damage from flying debris, Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips laminated window glass may be used. 

Research by the glass industry has shown that in residential-size windows, 3/8 inch laminated glass anchored to the window frame with a silicone anchor bead can survive both small and Roof Damage Insurance Claim Tips large missile impact. Small missiles were represented in testing by steel balls weighing two grams with a velocity of 74 mph. Large missiles were represented by a 9 pound 2x4 traveling at 28 mph (Minor and Behr, 1994).

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