Mold Remediation >> Mold Symptoms

Kern County, in the San Joaquin Valley, California, is one of the most highly coccidioidomycosis-endemic regions. The number of new cases of coccidioidomycosis in the area has varied widely from year to year; a low incidence of coccidioidomycosis from 1987 to 1990 (<500 reported cases a year in Kern County), Mold Symptoms was followed by a high incidence from 1991 to 1994. 

The number of reported cases, Mold Symptoms which were identified by serologic testing at the Kern County Health Department (the reference serology laboratory for the county), probably represent approximately 10% of the total number of infected persons in that county (Figure 4) (28). The medical costs for infected persons in Kern County are estimated at $66 million(29). 

In 1992, 4,500 new cases were reported to the California State Department of Health Services (30), Mold Symptoms most from Kern County; the number of new cases also increased in almost all counties in central and southern California (30). The increase in reported cases in California in 199192 was dramatic but certainly an underestimate of the magnitude of the problem (31). 

The epidemic seems to be waning, Mold Symptoms for reasons that are not clear, but the marked increase in incidence from the 1980s to 1991 through 1993 is indisputable. What factors may account for this increase? One major consideration is the weather. C. E. Smith observed years ago that the number of cases of coccidioidomycosis was higher in the summer after a rainy winter than after a dry winter (10). 

In March 1991, Mold Symptoms a 5-year drought in California ended with a heavy rainfall. Rainfall was also heavy in the winters of 1992 and 1993. Though the relationship between the weather and the density of C. immitis in the soil may never be understood in detail, the following scenario seems plausible. During drought years, the number of organisms competing with C. immitis decreases. C. immitis does not thrive, but it remains viable though dormant. 

After heavy rain, the arthrocondia germinate and multiply to a higher density than usual because of the lack of competing organisms. Once the soil dries in the late summer and fall, Mold Symptoms the arthroconidia become airborne and potentially infectious (29). Another reason for the sudden increase in disease incidence might have been the number of susceptible persons in the disease-endemic area. 

The number may have been the result of both increased migration of susceptible persons and decreased immunity in the indigenous population. Immunity comes from prior infection and is manifest as a positive coccidioidin skin test. In almost all cases, Mold Symptoms coccidioidomycosis confers lifelong immunity. 

As a result of years of low incidence, the number of nonimmune persons may have increased, Mold Symptoms as evidenced by the decrease in prevalence of positive coccidioidin skin tests among local high school students. In 1939, 50% to 60% of high school students in the San Joaquin Valley had positive skin tests(17), but in the 1980s only 3% to 5% of high school students had positive skin tests (T. Larwood, pers. comm.). 

Given the historical data, this estimate seems low, but another study also found a low prevalence. In 1985, workers in Tucson estimated that 30% of a random sample of persons in a Hispanic neighborhood had positive skin tests (32). In addition to the drought, Mold Symptoms irrigation of fields, the increasing amount of land under cultivation, and a decrease in indoor dust due to the widespread use of air conditioning may also have played a role in the relatively low incidence of infections in the 1980s. 

Coccidioidomycosis in the Immunosuppressed C. immitis is a primary pathogen that can cause disease in immunologically healthy persons. In the population as a whole, Mold Symptoms fewer than 5% of infected persons have persistent pulmonary infection or extrapulmonary dissemination of the disease (16). The incidence of clinically significant disease in immunosuppressed patients is much higher. 

In one study symptomatic coccidioidomycosis developed in 18 (7%) of 260 renal transplant patients in Arizona over a 10-year period, Mold Symptoms primarily in the first year after transplantation (33). This rate was substantially higher than the rate of infection in patients who were undergoing hemodialysis. Approximately 12 (67%) of infections in the patients with renal transplants were disseminated; the remainder were confined to the lung. 

Of patients with disseminated disease, 10 (83%) died, Mold Symptoms despite intensive therapy with amphotericin B. In another study from Tucson, all confirmed cases of coccidioidomycosis during a 4-year period were reviewed. The dissemination rate was 8 (73%) of 11 of patients who were receiving immunosuppressive therapies, compared with only 15 (14%) of 110 healthy controls. 

As more patients in the disease-endemic area receive liver, lung, and heart transplants, this problem will increase. Pregnant women, Mold Symptoms especially those in the third trimester, are at high risk for developing disseminated coccidioidomycosis if they become infected (24). In the first and second trimesters, the risk is much lower. 

The reason is not entirely clear, but two factors may play a role: 1) the high sex hormone levels found in late pregnancy enhance the growth of C. immitis in vitro (25), and 2) the shift in the T-cell immune response late in pregnancy toward TH2 cytokines (26)interferes with resolving the infection. In experimental animals, Mold Symptoms pregnancy increases the severity of leishmaniasis, another infection hat is controlled by a TH1 T-cell response.

Coccidioidomycosis in AIDS patients is also very likely to be life-threatening. The first cases of coccidioidomycosis described in AIDS patients were atypical, Mold Symptoms with a reticulonodular chest x-ray pattern, positive blood cultures, and infection of multiple organs (36). As we have gained more experience with coccidioidomycosis in HIV-infected persons, we have learned that the clinical spectrum is broader than originally reported. 

Fish Mold Symptoms and his colleagues collected data from 77 AIDS patients with coccidioidomycosis who were treated by physicians in Arizona and California (37). They grouped the patients according to their clinical symptoms.

Debris Cleanup From Tornados

Direct costs can be defined as the cost of debris removal, property damage, and response for a specific tornado event. All other costs are indirect and include loss of industrial and commercial productivity as a result of damage to infrastructure, facilities, or interruption of services. As a result  read more..

Tenant Right Eviction

TENANT OBLIGATIONS Sec. 34.03.120. Tenant obligations.(a) The tenant(1) shall keep that part of the premises occupied and used by the tenant as clean and safe as the condition of the premises permit;(2) shall dispose all ashes, rubbish, garbage, and Tenant Move Out Cleanup Tenant Right Eviction other waste from the dwelling unit   read more..

Will Using Dehumidifier Get Rid Of Mold In A Room

In addition to correctly installing a vapor barrier, it is important to provide adequate ventilation of spaces where moisture can build up. Most building codes require that attics and crawl spaces be ventilated, Dehumidification Will Using Dehumidifier Get Rid Of Mold In A Room and some require a minimum one-inch clear airspace above the insulation for ve  read more..

How To Repair And Restore Fire And Water Damage

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's recent approval of a bill mandating the use of cigarettes that are much less likely to cause fires will save lives in that state and Fire Damage How To Repair And Restore Fire And Water Damage could lead to nationwide use of such "fire-safe" cigarettes. 

Last Friday,   read more..

How To Keep Mold And Mildew Out Of Basement Closets

Floods: Drying Out This publication is intended to give quick, brief answers to the many issues that arise after a flood. You will not find detailed instructions here, but the answers will direct you to short fact sheets and the sections of several Basement Drying How To Keep Mold And Mildew Out Of Basement Closets booklets that have detailed instructions.  read more..

Odor Control

Say Tenant Move Out Cleanup Odor Control out and did not inform you and it's been a couple of weeks. In that time animals of moved in and started living in your rental. How do you get them out of the walls and attic now that they've taken up residence there. Call a professional restoration company dealing with animal remova  read more..

Withstanding Wind And Lightning

Rooftop Attachment of Lightning Protection Systems in High-Wind Regions Hurricane Katrina Recovery AdvisoryFEMA May 2006, Revised July 2006 Purpose: To recommend practices for installing lightning protection systems (LPS) that will enhance Wind Damage Withstanding Wind And Lightning wind resistance in high-wind regions. Key Iss  read more..

Mold Tester Certification

There is substantial visible mold growth inside hard surface (e.g., sheet metal) ducts or on other components of your heating and cooling system. There are several important points to understand concerning mold detection in heating and cooling systems: Many sections of your heating and cooling syste  read more..

Water Extration Prices

Chemical analyses included radionuclides, majorand trace elements, and organic compounds. Qualityassurance samples were analyzed with each set of environmental samples for all constituents except radionuclides (table 2, atend of report), Water Extraction Water Extration Prices which used different quality-assurance methods.  read more..

How To Board Up Windows During A Hurricane

The purpose of this policy is to provide a prompt and efficient means of emergency board up services after hours and other times when there is no responsible party, the responsible party is otherwise unable to respond, or at the request of the responsible party. This policy is also designed to assis  read more..