Asbestos Abatement >> How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive

Workplace exposures at the facility after 1992 were probably much lower than exposures that occurred prior to 1992 because Libby ore was no longer used at the facility after 1992. In 2000, EPA measured 0.0107 structures/cc in How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive air next to the exfoliation ovens (EPA 2001). 

The tremolite-actinolite fibers detected could not, however, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive be associated with residual exposure to Libby asbestosd . A recently published NIOSH study of an exfoliation facility processing vermiculite from South Carolina detected low levels of airborne tremolite-actinolite asbestos as well (NIOSH 2004). 

Further exposure to residual Libby asbestos is unlikely at this site, given that EPA required cleanup via HEPA vacuuming and wet wiping of residual, asbestos-contaminated dust sampled on vertical surfaces EPA also ordered removal of asbestos-contaminated soils on site, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive which was completed in winter, 2001 (Moxley 2002). 

ATSDR has not received any clearance or confirmatory sampling from this cleanup; however, as previously noted, there is a low level of tremolite-actinolite series fibers in South Carolina ore, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive which would have likely interfered with any clearance sampling taken. 

Household contact During the period when Libby ore was processed, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive the families of past workers may have been exposed to asbestos-containing dusts from the plant that were carried home on workers’ hair and clothing. 

Exposures to household contacts cannot be quantified but would have been influenced by the levels of Libby asbestos on worker clothing and certain behavior factors (e.g., worker hygiene practices or household laundering practices). It is reasonable to assume, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive based on the high levels of exposure at the plant, that fibers made it home on workers’ clothing. 

Research has documented the link between asbestos-industry workers’ exposure to asbestos and How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive asbestos-related disease in the workers’ family members (Anderson et al. 1976; Kilburn et al. 1985). 

ATSDR’s 2001 Libby study also observed a prevalence of pleural abnormalities in the household contacts of workers employed at the mine and How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive at associated vermiculite-processing facilities. 

Waste Rock Currently the facility places its waste rock (which is derived from vermiculite from the South Carolina mine) into 52ft3 storage bags, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive which are stored in containers prior to disposal in a landfill. Records documenting disposal practices during the period when Libby Vermiculite was processed at this facility were not found. 

At other exfoliation sites, waste rock was a significant exposure pathway to the community. For instance, at the Western Minerals plant in Minneapolis, children were playing in the waste piles, and How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive the waste rock was given to the surrounding community for fill material and other uses (MDH 2001). 

At some point in 1985 Grace began wetting and storing its waste in containers at all exfoliation plants, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive but the exact date is unknown (Unpublished information from EPA’s database of W.R. Grace Documents). 

Because records to obtain information on the disposal of the waste rock do not exist, alternative methods to determine if people in the surrounding area were exposed were undertaken. Aerial photographs of the facility and How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive the surrounding area were examined to determine if the waste rock piles was stored on the site (EDR 2004). 

No evidence of on-site storage was observed from the photographs, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive which clearly show the rail cars on the site during the period the facility was in operation. W.R. Grace also reported that the public has had no access to the site since the perimeter fence was added in the late 1970s. 

Prior to that time, W.R. Grace had personnel on site for approximately 16 hours each day, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive which would have possibly discouraged younger children trespassing and disturbing on-site materials (EPA 2001). 

If piles of waste rock from the exfoliation of Libby vermiculite were accessible, they may have been a source of asbestos exposure to children who might have played in them. The piles might also have been an exposure source for people removing, handling, or using the stoner rock or waste vermiculite for fill or How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive other uses. 

The stoner rock was estimated How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive to contain between 2% and 10% friable asbestos (Unpublished information from EPA’s database of W.R. Grace Documents). 

A past study of asbestos-related disease from exposure to tremolite asbestos cited a case of asbestosis and How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive lung cancer in a man who lived near a vermiculite processing plant for the first 20 years of his life and who reportedly sometimes played in the piles of vermiculite tailings (Srebro and Roggli 1994). 

Ambient Air No known data identify the quantities of asbestos emitted from the facility between 1964 and 1992, the time when it was processing Libby concentrate. Nevertheless, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive using information provided by W.R. Grace for similar facilities, air emissions appear to indicate that tremolite asbestos fibers were present in the particulate emissions from similar exfoliating furnaces. 

Friable tremolite asbestos at similar facilities was present How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive in the fine particulate matter from the process vent system at concentrations ranging from 1% to 3% (Unpublished information from EPA’s database of W.R. Grace Documents ). 

Wind patterns in the Phoenix area are variable; in general, however, winds are out of the east in the evenings and out of the west in the daytime. Assuming operations were generally conducted during the daytime, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive any downwind asbestos exposures would be primarily east of the facility. 

Because the facility no longer processes Libby vermiculite, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive this ambient air pathway is currently incomplete. According to interviews conducted by EPA, workers may have occasionally taken product (e.g., Redi Earth™) off site for home use (EPA 2001). ATSDR does not know if this created a potential hazard to these workers. 

In any event, these employee’s occupational exposures likely exceed any exposure resulting from this practice. Whether the general public ever hauled away contaminated materials such as waste rock for personal use is How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive unknown. A neighborhood visual survey attempted to determine if the waste material was used in the surrounding residential areas. 

For instance, ATSDR and ADHS staff looked for gravel driveways containing stoner rock, How To Remove Asbestos Flooring Adhesive as occurred in and near the Western Minerals site in Minneapolis (MDH 2001). Although staff members found no indication the material was used within approximately 4 square miles of nearby residential developments, this survey was not comprehensive.

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