Lead Paint Removal >> Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save

This analysis estimates incremental costs, benefits and net benefits of replacing all original windows (i.e., single-pane windows not already replaced since the 1978 lead paint ban), relative to the costs and benefits of repairing some windows to satisfy HUD regulations related to friction and Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save impact surfaces. 

The 1999 HUD regulation on lead paint hazard evaluation and control in federally-assisted housing requires that rehab work in pre-1978 units receiving more than $5,000 of federal assistance be done with lead safe work practices, plus stabilization of any deteriorated lead paint, friction and impact work as needed, cleanup and Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save clearance tests for lead in dust. 

Friction and impact work often involves window work and/or window replacement. Incremental Lifetime Earnings Benefits of Window Replacement vs. Window Work Extensive research documents the societal benefit of lead paint hazard reduction based on the Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save present value of increased average lifetime earnings associated with avoided preschool lead exposure. 

This benefit reflects the average loss of IQ due to lead exposure, and associated losses in education attainment and Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save earnings. On average, the lifetime earnings value to every child who avoids a one ug/dL increase in preschool blood lead is $8,741 (in 2005 $). 

1 The brain is especially vulnerable to elevated blood lead before the age of three, and Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save the most common exposure pathway for young children is lead-contaminated dust ingested via normal hand to mouth activity when children crawl and play on floors. 

Therefore, the societal value of window replacement relative to window work can be estimated based on the difference in dust lead associated with window replacement versus window repair, and the impact of this difference on blood lead for young resident children. Table 1 presents available data on the difference in floor dust and Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save sill dust lead over 12 years in units with window work versus window replacement. 

The data in Table 1 reflect small sample sizes for some years and interpolation estimates for other years. Therefore, the 12-year average values (bottom row of Table 1) for sill and Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save floor dust lead loadings are used to predict the average difference in dust lead exposure for young children in window replacement versus non-replacement units. 

Table 2 presents predicted blood lead levels for children living in pre-1950 homes with specific floor Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save and sill dust lead levels, based on the blood lead model developed from analysis of NHANES 1999-20042 data for pre-1950 homes. This NHANES analysis shows: Predicted blood lead is 3.7 µg/dL for young children in pre-1950 homes with window replacement, based on the 12-year average floor dust lead of 4.8 µg/ft2 and sill dust lead of 39 µg/ft2 for homes with all original windows replaced in Table 1.  

Predicted blood lead is 4.2 µg/dL with no windows replaced, based on the average floor dust lead of 8.1 µg/ft2 and sill dust of 81 µg/ft2 in Table 1 for non-replacement homes. Predicted blood lead is 0.5 µg/dL lower, on average, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save for children in homes with all original windows replaced relative to those in homes with non-replacement window work. 

Table 3 calculates the incremental average lifetime earnings benefit of window replacement based on the value of every avoided one ug/dL increase in blood lead ($8,741), Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save the predicted difference in blood lead with window replacement versus window work (0.5 ug/dL); the fraction of units with children ages 6 to 30 months, and the fraction with children ages 6 to 18 months. 

The calculations in Table 3 assume that lead hazard reduction with either window replacement or window work yields lifetime earnings benefits for resident children ages 6 to 30 months in the first year, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save and for new birth cohorts of children ages 6 to 18 months every year for another 11 years. 

This yields a 12-year present value of incremental lifetime earnings benefit of $1,671 for children in homes with original windows replaced relative to those in homes with window work. In units where all original windows are replaced for lead hazard reduction, the average cost per window replaced was $360. In non-replacement units with window friction and impact work for lead hazard reduction, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save the average window work cost (spread over all the windows in the unit) was $81. 

Based on these data, Table 4 shows the window replacement costs, avoided window repair costs, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save and net replacement costs (in 2005 $) associated with an intervention strategy that targets all single-pane (original) window for replacement in homes with 7, 10, or 16 windows. Academic research shows that higher home market value is associated with new windows, due to an average increase in home value of $20 for every dollar per year in energy bill savings, plus an appearance value of about $100 per window. 

3 A separate analysis of 93 different cities, estimates that replacing single-pane windows with Energy Star windows yields average energy bill savings of $304 per year in a 2000 square foot home, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save and replacing clear glass double-pane windows with Energy Star windows yields average savings of $141 per year.

4 3 Nevin, R. and G. Watson (1998), Evidence of rational market valuations for home energy efficiency, Appraisal Journal; Nevin, R., H. Gazan, C. Bender (1999), More evidence of rational market values for home energy efficiency, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save Appraisal Journal By subtraction, this indicates that replacing single-pane windows with clear glass double-pane windows yields average savings of $163 per year in a 2000 square foot home. 

Table 5 shows these estimates for energy savings in a 2000 square foot home, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save and estimated energy savings in smaller homes (1200 and 800 square feet), assuming that the energy savings from window replacement is proportionate to square feet of living area. 

Table 6 shows Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save net costs for window replacement (from Table 4) and lifetime earnings benefits (from Table 3), relative to window work for lead hazard reduction, plus the market value benefit of clear glass double-pane windows versus single-pane windows. 

The market value includes Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save an appearance value of $100 per window plus the value of energy efficiency equal to 20 times the annual energy savings from replacing single-pane windows with clear glass double-pane windows (from the last row of Table 5). 

Table 6 reflects the market benefit Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save of clear glass double-pane versus single-pane windows because the average cost of $360 per window replaced reported for lead hazard reduction suggests that these interventions are using clear glass double-pane windows rather than more expensive Energy Star windows. 

The net economic benefit of replacing all single-pane windows with clear glass double-pane windows, versus window work for lead hazard reduction is $1,719 to $2,057, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save depending on home size and number of windows replaced. This net benefit reflects lifetime earnings benefits, plus appearance value, plus energy efficiency value, minus net window replacement costs. 

Table 7 shows the additional energy savings that can be realized by replacing old windows with Energy Star windows (from Table 5, Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save Energy Star Window vs. Double-Pane). Multiplying this additional annual savings by 20 yields increased energy efficient home value of $1,120 to $2,820, depending on the home size and number of windows. 

Dividing by the number of windows in each home shows Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save that choosing Energy Star windows rather than clear glass double-pane windows yields additional net benefits if the incremental cost of the Energy Star windows is no more than $160 to $176 more than the clear glass double-pane cost per window. 

This means the upgrade to Energy Star windows is cost-effective unless the cost per Energy Star window is more than 44% to 49% higher than the $360 average cost per window replaced reported in units with all Replace Lead Painted Windows And Save original windows replaced for lead hazard reduction. On average, the price premium for Energy Star windows is only about 15%,5 so choosing Energy Star replacement windows over clear glass double-pane windows further increases the net benefits of window replacement.

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