Lead Paint Removal >> Occupational Exposure To Lead

This section applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2). (2) This section does not apply to the construction industry or to agricultural operations. (b) Definitions. Action Level. Employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to airborne lead at an 8-hour time-weighted average Occupational Exposure To Lead concentration of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3 ). 

Chief. The Chief of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 420603, San Francisco, California 94142. Director. The Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or Occupational Exposure To Lead designee. Lead. Metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. 

Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds. (c) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). (1) The Occupational Exposure To Lead employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to lead at an 8-hour time-weighted average concentration greater than 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3 ). 

(2) If an Occupational Exposure To Lead employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day, the permissible exposure limit for that day, as a time-weighted average concentration (TWA), shall be reduced according to the following formula: Maximum permissible limit (in µg/m3 ) = 400 hours worked in the day. 

(3) When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with the PEL, employee exposure, Occupational Exposure To Lead for the purpose of determining whether the employer has complied with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. 

Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the Occupational Exposure To Lead employee's daily TWA exposure. (d) Exposure Monitoring. (1) General. (A) For the purposes of subsection (d), employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator. 

(B) With the exception of monitoring under Section 5198(d)(3), the Occupational Exposure To Lead employer shall collect full shift (for at least 7 continuous hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job classification in each work area. (C) Full shift personal samples shall be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead. 

(2) Initial Determination. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or Occupational Exposure To Lead above the action level. (3) Basis of Initial Determination. (A) The employer shall monitor employee exposures and shall base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations: 

1. Any Occupational Exposure To Lead information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead; 2. Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and 3. Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead. 

(B) Monitoring for the initial determination may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed Occupational Exposure To Lead employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest concentrations of airborne lead in the workplace. (C) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding 12 months may be used to satisfy the requirement to monitor under Section 5198(d)(3)(A) if sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and confidence levels of Section 5198(d)(9). 

(4) Positive Initial Determination and Initial Monitoring. (A) Where a determination conducted under Section 5198(d)(2) and (d)(3) shows the possibility of any Occupational Exposure To Lead employee exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead. 

(B) Measurements of airborne lead made in the preceding 12 months may be used to satisfy this requirement if the sampling and analytical methods used meet the accuracy and Occupational Exposure To Lead confidence levels of Section 5198(d)(9). (5) Negative Initial Determination. 

Where a determination conducted under Section 5198(d)(2) and (d)(3) is made that no employee is exposed to concentrations of airborne lead at or above the action level, the Occupational Exposure To Lead employer shall make a written record of such determination. 

The record shall include at least the information specified in Section 5198(d)(3) and shall also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, Occupational Exposure To Lead and the name and social security number of each employee monitored. 

(6) Frequency. (A) If initial monitoring reveals an employee's exposure to be above the permissible exposure limit, the Occupational Exposure To Lead employer shall repeat monitoring quarterly until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are at or below the permissible exposure limit. Subsequent monitoring for that employee shall conform with the applicable provisions of Section 5198(d)(6)(B) or (C). 

(B) If initial monitoring or monitoring conducted in accordance with Section 5198(d)(6)(A) reveals an employee's exposure to be at or above the action level but no greater than the permissible exposure limit, Occupational Exposure To Lead the employer shall repeat monitoring at least every 6 months. 

The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, Occupational Exposure To Lead taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided by Section 5198(d)(7). 

(C) Whenever initial monitoring or monitoring conducted in accordance with Section 5198(d)(6)(A) reveals an employee's exposure to be below the action level, Occupational Exposure To Lead further measurements are not required except as otherwise provided by Section 5198(d)(7). 

(7) Additional Monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures to lead, Occupational Exposure To Lead additional monitoring in accordance with this subsection shall be conducted. 

(8) Employee Notification. (A) Within 5 working days after the receipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure. (B) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, Occupational Exposure To Lead exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in the written notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and 

A description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit. (9) Accuracy of Measurement. The Occupational Exposure To Lead employer shall use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95%) within plus or minus 20 percent at concentrations of airborne lead equal to or greater than 30 µg/m3.

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