Lead Paint Removal >> Lead Abatement Methods

If blood lead level has substantially declined during the period of removal. From September 8, 1979 to September 8, 1980, the blood lead level requiring employee medical removal is 80 µg/100 g. Workers found to have a confirmed blood lead level at or above this value need only be removed from work having a daily 8-hour TWA exposure to lead at or Lead Abatement Methods above 100 µg/m3 . 

(Respirators are not to be used as a means of achieving this level of exposure.) Workers so removed are to be returned to work when their blood lead levels are at or below 60 µg/100 g of whole blood. From September 8, 1980 to September 8, 1981, Lead Abatement Methods the blood lead level requiring medical removal is 70 µg/100 g. 

During this period workers need only be removed from jobs having a daily 8-hour TWA exposure to lead at or above 50 µg/m3 (without respirator use) and are to be returned to work when a blood lead level no greater than 50 µg/100 g is achieved. Beginning September 8, 1981, Lead Abatement Methods return depends on a worker's blood lead level declining to 40 µg/100 g of whole blood. 

As part of the standard, Lead Abatement Methods the employer is required to notify in writing each employee whose blood lead level exceeds 40 µg/100 g. In addition each such employee is to be informed that the standard requires medical removal with MRP benefits, discussed below, when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the above defined limits. 

In addition to the above blood lead level criteria, temporary worker removal may also take place as a result of medical determinations and Lead Abatement Methods recommendations. A written medical opinion must be prepared after each examination pursuant to the standard. 

If the examining physician includes a medical finding, Lead Abatement Methods determination or opinion that the employee has a medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to lead, then the employee must be removed from exposure to lead at or above the action level. 

Alternatively, if the examining physician recommends special protective measures for an employee (e.g., use of a powered air purifying respirator) or recommends limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, then the employer must implement these recommendations. Recommendations may be more stringent than the specific provisions of the standard. 

The examining physician, therefore, is given broad flexibility to tailor special protective procedures to the needs of individual employees. This flexibility extends to the evaluation and management of pregnant workers and male and female workers who are planning to raise children. 

Based on the history, physical examination, and laboratory studies, the physician might recommend special protective measures or medical removal for an employee who is pregnant or who is planning to conceive a child when, in the physician's judgement, Lead Abatement Methods continued exposure to lead at the current job would pose a significant risk. 

The return of the employee to his or her former job status, or the removal of special protections or limitations, Lead Abatement Methods depends upon the examining physician determining that the employee is no longer at increased risk of material impairment or that special measures are no longer needed. 

During the period of any form of special protection or removal, the employer must maintain the worker's earnings, seniority, and Lead Abatement Methods other employment rights and benefits (as though the worker had not been removed) for a period of up to 18 months. This economic protection will maximize meaningful worker participation in the medical surveillance program, and is appropriate as part of the employer's overall obligation to provide a safe and healthful workplace. 

The provisions of MRP benefits during the employee's removal period may, however, be conditioned upon participation in medical surveillance. On rare occasions, Lead Abatement Methods an employee's blood lead level may not acceptably decline within 18 months of removal. This situation will arise only in unusual circumstances, thus the standard relies on an individual medical examination to determine how to protect such an employee. 

This medical determination is to be based on both laboratory values, including lead levels, zinc protoporphyrin levels, blood counts, and other tests felt to be warranted, as well as the physician's judgment that any symptoms or Lead Abatement Methods findings on physical examination are a result of lead toxicity. The medical determination may be that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to his or her former job status. 

The medical determination may provide additional removal time past 18 months for some employees or Lead Abatement Methods specify special protective measures to be implemented. The lead standard provides for a multiple physician review in cases where the employee wishes a second opinion concerning potential lead poisoning or toxicity. 

If an employee wishes a second opinion, he or she can make an appointment with a physician of his or her choice. This second physician will review the findings, recommendations or determinations of the first physician and conduct any examinations, Lead Abatement Methods consultations or tests deemed necessary in an attempt to make a final medical determination. 

If the first and second physicians do not agree in their assessment they must try to resolve their differences. If they cannot ring the first two years that the ultimate removal criteria are being phased in, Lead Abatement Methods the return criteria have been set to assure that a worker's reach an agreement then they must designate a third physician to resolve the dispute. 

The employer must provide examining and consulting physicians with the following specific information: a copy of the lead standard and all appendices, a description of the employee's duties as related to exposure, the exposure level to lead and Lead Abatement Methods any other toxic substances (if applicable), a description of personal protective equipment used, blood lead levels, and all prior written medical opinions regarding the employee in the employer's possession or control. 

The employer must also obtain from the physician and provide the employee with a written medical opinion containing blood lead levels, the physician's opinion as to whether the employee is at risk of material impairment to health, any recommended protective measures for the employee if further exposure is permitted, Lead Abatement Methods as well as any recommended limitations upon an employee's use of respirators.

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