Lead Paint Removal >> Lead Paint Protection Requirements

Lead standard provides for a multiple physician review in cases where the employee wishes a second opinion concerning potential lead poisoning or toxicity. If an employee wishes a second opinion, he or she can make an appointment with a physician of his or her choice. This second physician will review the findings,recommendations or determinations of the first physician and conduct any examinations, consultations or tests deemed necessary in an attempt Lead Paint Protection Requirements to make a final medical determination.

If the first and second physicians do not agree in their assessment they must try to resolve their differences. If they cannot reach an agreement then they must designate a third physician to resolve the dispute. The employer must provide examining and Lead Paint Protection Requirements consulting physicians with the following specific information: 

A copy of the lead regulations and all appendices, a description of the employee's duties as related to exposure, the exposure level or anticipated level to lead and Lead Paint Protection Requirements any other toxic substances (if applicable), a description of personal protective equipment used, blood lead levels, and all prior written medical opinions regarding the employee in the employer's possession or control. 

The employer must also obtain from the physician and provide the employee with a written medical opinion containing blood lead levels, the physician’s opinion as to whether the employee is at risk of material impairment to health, Lead Paint Protection Requirements any recommended protective measures for the employee if further exposure is permitted, as well as any recommended limitations upon an employee's use of respirators. 

Employers must instruct each physician not to reveal to the employer in writing or Lead Paint Protection Requirements in any other way his or her findings, laboratory results, or diagnoses which are felt to be unrelated to occupational lead exposure. They must also instruct each physician to advise the employee of any occupationally or non occupationally related medical condition requiring further treatment or evaluation. 

The standard provides for the use of respirators where engineering and other primary controls are not effective. However, the use of respirator protection shall not be used in lieu of temporary medical removal due to elevated blood lead levels or Lead Paint Protection Requirements findings that an employee is at risk of material health impairment. 

This is based on the numerous inadequacies of respirators including skin rash where the face piece makes contact with the skin, Lead Paint Protection Requirements unacceptable stress to breathing in some workers with underlying cardiopulmonary impairment, difficulty in providing adequate fit, the tendency for respirators to create additional hazards by interfering with vision, hearing, and mobility.

The difficulties of assuring the maximum effectiveness of a complicated work practice program involving respirators. Respirators do, however, serve a useful function where engineering and work practice controls are inadequate by providing supplementary, interim, or Lead Paint Protection Requirements short-term protection, provided they are properly selected for the environment in which the employee will be working, properly fitted to the employee, maintained and cleaned periodically, and worn by the employee when required. 

In its standard on occupational exposure to inorganic lead in the construction industry, Lead Paint Protection Requirements OSHA has prohibited prophylactic chelation. Diagnostic and therapeutic chelation are permitted only under the supervision of a licensed physician with appropriate medical monitoring in an acceptable clinical setting. 

The decision to initiate chelation therapy must be made on an individual basis and Lead Paint Protection Requirements take into account the severity of symptoms felt to be a result of lead toxicity along with blood lead levels, ZPP levels, and other laboratory tests as appropriate. 

EDTA and penicillamine, Lead Paint Protection Requirements which are the primary chelating agents used in the therapy of occupational lead poisoning, have significant potential side effects and their use must be justified on the basis of expected benefits to the worker. Unless frank and severe symptoms are present, therapeutic chelation is not recommended, given the opportunity to remove a worker from exposure and allow the body to naturally excrete accumulated lead. 

As a diagnostic aid, the chelation mobilization test using Ca-EDTA has limited applicability. According to some investigators, the test can differentiate between lead-induced and Lead Paint Protection Requirements other nephropathies. The test may also provide an estimation of the mobile fraction of the total body lead burden. 

Employers are required to assure that accurate records are maintained on exposure assessment, including environmental monitoring, medical surveillance, Lead Paint Protection Requirements and medical removal for each employee. Exposure assessment records must be kept for at least 30 years. Medical surveillance records must be kept for the duration of employment plus 30 years except in cases where the employment was less than one year.

If duration of employment is less than one year, Lead Paint Protection Requirements the employer need not retain this record beyond the term of employment if the record is provided to the employee upon termination of employment. Medical removal records also must be maintained for the duration of employment. All records required under the standard must be made available upon request to the Chief and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 

Employers must also make environmental and biological monitoring and medical removal records available to affected employees and to former employees or Lead Paint Protection Requirements their authorized employee representatives. Employees or their specifically designated representatives have access to their entire medical surveillance records. 

In addition, the standard requires that the employer inform all workers exposed to lead at or above 30 µg/m3 of the provisions of the standard and all its appendices, Lead Paint Protection Requirements the purpose and description of medical surveillance and provisions for medical removal protection if temporary removal is required. 

An understanding of the potential health effects of lead exposure by all exposed employees along with full understanding of their rights under the lead standard is essential for an effective monitoring program. Although the toxicity of lead has been known for 2,000 years, Lead Paint Protection Requirements the knowledge of the complex relationship between lead exposure and human response is still being refined. 

Significant research into the toxic properties of lead continues throughout the world, and Lead Paint Protection Requirements it should be anticipated that our understanding of thresholds of effects and margins of safety will be improved in future years. The provisions of the lead standard are founded on two prime medical judgments: 

First, Lead Paint Protection Requirements the prevention of adverse health effects from exposure to lead throughout a working lifetime requires that worker blood lead levels be maintained at or below 40 µg/dl, and second, the blood lead levels of workers, male or female, who intend to parent in the near future should be maintained below 30 µg/dl to minimize adverse reproductive health effects to the parents and developing fetus. 

The adverse effects of lead on reproduction are being actively researched and OSHA encourages the physician to remain abreast of recent developments in the area to best advise pregnant workers or Lead Paint Protection Requirements workers planning to conceive children.

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