Lead Paint Removal >> Exposure To Lead Paint Results

Exposure to lead can have serious effects on reproductive function in both males and females. In male workers exposed to lead there can be a decrease in sexual drive, impotence, decreased ability to produce healthy sperm, and sterility. Malformed sperm (teratospermia), decreased number of sperm (hypospermia), and sperm with decreased motility (asthenospermia) Exposure To Lead Paint Results can all occur. 

Teratospermia has been noted at mean blood lead levels of 53 µg/dl and hypospermia and asthenospermia at 41 µg/dl. Furthermore, Exposure To Lead Paint Results there appears to be a dose–response relationship for teratospermia in lead exposed workers. Women exposed to lead may experience menstrual disturbances including dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia and amenorrhea. 

Following exposure to lead, women have a higher frequency of sterility, premature births, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths. Germ cells can be affected by lead and Exposure To Lead Paint Results cause genetic damage in the egg or sperm cells before conception and result in failure to implant, miscarriage, stillbirth, or birth defects. 

Infants of mothers with lead poisoning have a higher mortality during the first year and suffer from lowered birth weights, slower growth, and Exposure To Lead Paint Results nervous system disorders. Lead can pass through the placental barrier and lead levels in the mother's blood are comparable to concentrations of lead in the umbilical cord at birth. 

Transplacental passage becomes detectable at 12 to 14 weeks of gestation and increases until birth. There is little direct data on damage to the fetus from exposure to lead but it is generally assumed that the fetus and Exposure To Lead Paint Results newborn would be at least as susceptible to neurological damage as young children. Blood lead levels of 50 to 60 µg/dl in children can cause significant neurobehavioral impairments and there is evidence of hyperactivity at blood levels as low as 25 µg/dl. 

Given the overall body of literature concerning the adverse health effects of lead in children, OSHA feels that the blood lead level in children should be maintained below 30 µg/dl with a population mean of 15 µg/dl. Blood lead levels in the fetus and Exposure To Lead Paint Results newborn likewise should not exceed 30 µg/dl. 

Because of lead's ability to pass through the placental barrier and Exposure To Lead Paint Results also because of the demonstrated adverse effects of lead on reproductive function in both the male and female as well as the risk of genetic damage of lead on both the ovum and sperm, OSHA recommends a 30 µg/dl maximum permissible blood lead level in both males and females who wish to bear children. 

6. Other toxic effects. Debate and research continue on the effects of lead on the human body. Hypertension has frequently been noted in occupationally exposed individuals although it is difficult to assess whether this is due to lead's adverse effects on the kidney or Exposure To Lead Paint Results if some other mechanism is involved. Vascular and electrocardiographic changes have been detected but have not been well characterized. 

Lead is thought to impair thyroid function and interfere with the pituitary-adrenal axis, Exposure To Lead Paint Results but again these effects have not been well defined. III. Medical Evaluation The most important principle in evaluating a worker for any occupational disease including lead poisoning is a high index of suspicion on the part of the examining physician. 

As discussed in Section 2, lead can affect numerous organ systems and produce a wide array of signs and symptoms, Exposure To Lead Paint Results most of which are non-specific and subtle in nature at least in the early stages of disease. Unless serious concern for lead toxicity is present, many of the early clues to diagnosis may easily be overlooked. 

The crucial initial step in the medical evaluation is recognizing that a worker's employment can result in exposure to lead. The worker will frequently be able to define exposures to lead and lead containing materials but often will not volunteer this Exposure To Lead Paint Results information unless specifically asked. In other situations the worker may not know of any exposures to lead but the suspicion might be raised on the part of the physician because of the industry or occupation of the worker. 

Potential occupational exposure to lead and its compounds occur in many occupations in the construction industry, including demolition and salvaging operations, Exposure To Lead Paint Results removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead, construction, alteration, repair or renovation of structures containing lead, transportation, disposal, storage or containment of lead or lead-containing materials on construction sites, and maintenance operations associated with construction activities. 

Once the possibility for lead exposure is raised, the focus can then be directed toward eliciting information from the medical history, physical exam, and Exposure To Lead Paint Results finally from laboratory data to evaluate the worker for potential lead toxicity. A complete and detailed work history is important in the initial evaluation. 

A listing of all previous employment with information on job description, exposure to fumes or dust, known exposures to lead or other toxic substances, Exposure To Lead Paint Results a description of any personal protective equipment used, and previous medical surveillance should all be included in the worker's record. 

Where exposure to lead is suspected, information concerning on-the-job personal hygiene, smoking or eating habits in work areas, laundry procedures, and Exposure To Lead Paint Results use of any protective clothing or respiratory protection equipment should be noted. 

A complete work history is essential in the medical evaluation of a worker with suspected lead toxicity, Exposure To Lead Paint Results especially when long term effects such as neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are considered. The medical history is also of fundamental importance and should include a listing of all past and current medical conditions.

Current medications including proprietary drug intake, previous surgeries and hospitalizations, allergies, smoking history, alcohol consumption, Exposure To Lead Paint Results and also non-occupational lead exposures such as hobbies (hunting,riflery). Also known childhood exposures should be elicited. Any previous history of hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, psychological, gynecological, genetic, or reproductive problems should be specifically noted. 

A careful and complete review of systems must be performed to assess both recognized complaints and Exposure To Lead Paint Results subtle or slowly acquired symptoms which the worker might not appreciate as being significant. The review of symptoms should include the following: 1. General—weightloss, fatigue, decreased appetite. 

2. Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat (HEENT)— headaches, visual disturbances or decreased visual acuity, hearing deficits ortinnitus, pigmentation of the oral mucosa, or Exposure To Lead Paint Results metallic taste in mouth. 3. Cardio-pulmonary—shortness of breath, cough, chest pains, palpitations, or orthopnea. 

4. Gastrointestinal—nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea. 5. Neurological—irritability, insomnia, weakness (fatigue), dizziness, loss of memory, confusion, hallucinations, incoordination, ataxia, decreased strength in hands or feet, Exposure To Lead Paint Results disturbances in gait, difficulty in climbing stairs, or seizures. 

6. Hematological—pallor, Exposure To Lead Paint Results easy fatigability, abnormal blood loss, melena. 7. Reproductive (male and female and spouse where relevant)—history of infertility, impotence, loss of libido, abnormal menstrual periods, history of miscarriages, stillbirths, or children with birth defects. 8. Musculo-skeletal—muscle and joint pains.

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