Lead Paint Removal >> How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint

Task-specific exposure monitoring consisted of 30-min samples each measuring the exposure associated with work on one visually uniform paint surface, using one specific surface preparation work method. Task-specific exposure monitoring of exposures to construction workers allows more specificity in assessing the different sources of exposure, and more clearly documents the need for How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint task-specific controls.

These samples were analyzed for both lead and total dust. The lead analysis allowed a comparison of work methods by mean lead exposure levels. However, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint because this was not a controlled 'sideby-side' comparison of different work methods on the same surface, it was expected that this comparison would be confounded by the varying concentration of lead in the different paint surfaces. 

The intent of analyzing the samples for total dust was to eliminate the confounding effect of different lead paint concentrations. By measuring the 'dustiness' of the different work methods, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint the range of potential airborne lead exposures associated with each work method could be compared directly. 

Short-term task-specific sampling was conducted following NIOSH Method 7300, except that 0.8mm polyvinyl (PVC) membrane filters were used instead of the standard MCE filters. PVC filters were How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint used to allow reliable gravimetric determination of filter weight for total dust analysis. The target airflow rate for these samples was 4 L/min; the target duration was 30 min. 

Laboratory analysis by WOHL followed NIOSH Method 0500 (Gravimetric total dust) and NIOSH Method 7300.(18) The LOQ for lead at the target sample volume of 120 L was 4 mg/m3 ; for total dust it was 1250 mg/m3 . Paint Surface Assessment Bulk How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint samples were collected of each visually uniform paint surface disturbed by the surface preparation work. 

Bulk paint chip sampling was conducted following the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1994 guidance document.(20) Laboratory analysis was How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint conducted for lead content by WOHL using in-house methods based on NIOSH Method 7300 (Elements by ICP).(18) WOHL was ELLAP-accredited for lead paint chip analysis. 

Duplicate paint chip samples were taken and analyzed colorimetrically to determine which of the accumulated layers of paint contained detectable levels of lead. A handheld magnifying glass, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint together with Lead Check Swabs produced by HybriVet Systems, Inc., Framingham, Mass. were used. The manufacturer reports that the swabs use a rhodizinate reaction to detect the presence of lead above 0.5% (5000 ppm). 

It should be noted that an EPA/ U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-funded study of the performance of chemical test kits recommended against their use for lead paint testing.(22) Frequency of Surface Preparation Methods As part of the California Painters Project a How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint baseline employer questionnaire was conducted with all 21 participating contractors. 

The questionnaire assessed the frequency with which contractors used different surface preparation methods on pre-1980 buildings or metal surfaces. For each surface preparation method, the contractor was asked whether the company used the method often, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint sometimes, or never. Data Analysis Airborne exposure data were analyzed using Epi Info Version 5.0.(23) 

In calculating summary statistics and modeling distributions, all non detectable results were assigned the value of one-half the limit of detection. All results above the limit of detection, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint but below the limit of quantitation, were assigned the midpoint value between the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation. The contractor responses regarding the frequency with which their company used different surface preparation methods are summarized in Table I. 

The most frequently used methods were dry manual sanding, with 90% of the contractors reporting that they used it often; How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint and dry manual scraping, with 86% of the contractors reporting they used it often. Other frequently used work methods were uncontrolled power sanding (the use of a power sander that is not equipped with a vacuum attachment) and water blasting, with 38% reporting that they used these methods often. 

Full-Shift Airborne Lead Exposures In total, 25 full-shift samples were collected at 11 of the 12 job sites, each sample from a different employee. The How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint samples represent work on 18 visually uniform paint surfaces. The lead paint concentrations of these surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 42%. Analyses by rhodizinate spot test showed that the top layer of 3 of the 18 surfaces contained detectable lead content; all of the remaining surfaces contained detectable lead only in the underlying paint layers. 

The results of the 25 full-shift samples, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint when calculated as 8- hr time-weighted averages (8-hr TWAs), ranged from 0.8 to 550 mg/m3 . The arithmetic mean was 57 mg/m3 , above the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 mg/m3 (GM 5 18 mg/ m3 , GSD 5 3.7). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the OSHA PEL. 

All 6 of the How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint samples that exceeded the PEL represented work shifts that involved dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding, whereas only 9 of the 19 sample results below the PEL represented work shifts that involved use of these methods. The 2 highest full-shift air samples (310 and 550 mg/m3 ) were the result of dry manual sanding on a surface that tested 18% lead and contained detectable lead in the top layer of paint. 

Short-Term Airborne Lead Exposures Fifty-eight 30-min task-specific samples were collected at 11 of the 12 job sites, from 25 different employees. The How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint samples represent work on 20 visually uniform paint surfaces. The lead paint concentrations of these surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 23%. 

Analyses by rhodizinate spot test showed that the top layer of 3 of the 20 surfaces contained detectable lead content; How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint all of the remaining surfaces contained detectable lead only in the underlying paint layers. The 30-min lead exposure results by work method are presented in Table II. The arithmetic mean results for heat gun, wet sanding, and open flame burning were below 10 mg/m3 . 

The mean result for HEPA-exhausted power sanding was 33 mg/m3 ; the mean result for dry manual scraping was 71 mg/m3 . In comparison, How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint the mean results for dry manual sanding (420 mg/m3 ) and uncontrolled power sanding (580 mg/m3 ) were much higher. To partially address the confounding effect of varying lead paint content.

Table III provides results for the same data for four work methods categorized by the percentage of lead in the paint being removed. This How Painting Pros Deal With Lead Paint allows a better comparison of the lead exposures associated with these methods.

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