Lead Paint Removal >> OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard

In the OSHA Lead in Construction Standard, manual sanding is listed as a work method that, in the absence of previous exposure data, is initially presumed to expose employees to lead in excess of 50 mg/m3 but not in excess of 500 mg/m3 . However, the arithmetic mean for the nine 30-min exposures in this study was 430 mg/m3 and four of the nine OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard results exceeded 500 mg/m3 . 

Using these nine 30-min sample results to model three site-specific distributions of 8-hr TWAs indicates that a significant proportion of the full-shift exposures would exceed 500 mg/m3 (Table IV). This OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard indicates that it is common for dry manual sanding to result in full-shift lead exposure levels that exceed 10 times the PEL, the OSHA maximum exposure level for which half-mask air-purifying respirators may be used. 

This study's ten 30-min sample results for uncontrolled power sanding (range: 65–3400 mg/m3 ; mean: 580 mg/m3 ; GM: 220 mg/m3 ; estimated 95th percentile: 1700 mg/m3 ) generally agree with the small amount of OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard data available from previous studies. In the EPA study, three personal samples involving power sanding had a geometric mean of 571 mg/m3 and an estimated 95th percentile of 3170 mg/m3 . 

In the Washington State study, three painters doing power sanding had TWA exposures of 400, 1035, and 2270mg/m3 . The highest TWA exposure in the San Francisco Victorian study, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard 1700 mg/m3 , was measured during power sanding. 

In the exposure assessment data assembled by OSHA in support of the Lead in Construction Standard, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard 65 samples taken during non abatement power tool use ranged from 1 to 20,600 mg/ m3 , with a mean of 735 mg/m3 and an estimated 95th percentile value of 1314 mg/m3 . The ten 30-min sample results from this study had an estimated 95th percentile value of 1700mg/m3 . 

This lends support to OSH's decision to list 'power tool cleaning without dust collection systems' as a work method that, in the absence of exposure monitoring, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard should be treated as exposing employees to lead in excess of 500 mg/m3 but not in excess of 2500 mg/m3 . 

The fact remains, however, that the painters monitored by this project were not wearing full-face respirators but rather half-mask respirators during this work and OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard that this kind of respirator is widely used among residential and commercial painters. 

The data indicate that it is common for uncontrolled power sanding to result in 30-min lead exposure levels that, if sustained for a full work shift, would exceed 10 times the PEL, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard the OSHA maximum exposure level for which half-mask air-purifying respirators may be used. The 30-min results in Table II for dry manual sanding and uncontrolled power sanding are roughly equivalent in terms of worker lead exposure. 

In Table III these same results are categorized by the percentage of lead in the paint so as to partially adjust for the confounding effect of this variable. The results in Table III show that the mean lead exposures from uncontrolled power sanding are higher than for dry manual sanding when the two OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard methods are used on paint surfaces with approximately the same lead content (900 vs. 600 mg/m3 , and 97 vs. 53 mg/m3 ). 

By analyzing the amount of total dust exposure associated with these two methods, their relative 'dustiness' can be compared. Samples were analyzed for total dust to compare work methods while avoiding the confounding effect of different lead paint concentrations. By measuring the dustiness of the two work methods, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard the range of potential airborne lead exposures associated with each method could be compared directly. 

The data in Table V indicate that the mean total dust exposure level for power sanding (14,000 mg/m3 ) was twice that of dry manual sanding (6700 mg/m3 ). In summary, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard the results indicate that dry manual sanding and uncontrolled power sanding can both result in high airborne lead exposures among residential and commercial painters. 

The data also indicate that exposures from uncontrolled power sanding can be expected OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard to be approximately twice that of dry manual sanding. Both methods can result in lead exposure levels that, if sustained for a full work shift, would exceed 10 times the PEL (500 mg/ m3 as an 8-hr TWA) and thus the OSHA-assigned level of protection for a half-mask air-purifying respirator. 

This finding supports the full-shift OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard exposure results discussed previously. Together these findings indicate that painters are not always adequately protected by half-mask respirators when dry manual sanding or using uncontrolled power sanding on lead-containing paint. 

HEPA-Exhausted Power Sanding Airborne exposures associated with dry manual sanding, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard uncontrolled power sanding, and HEPA-exhausted power sanding are provided in Tables II and III. The results in Table II indicate that the mean 30-min exposure level associated with HEPA-exhausted power sanding is 8% of the mean level for dry manual sanding and 6% of the mean level for uncontrolled power sanding. 

The results in Table III provide exposure levels for the OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard three methods given paint concentrations that fall within the same range. For the paint concentration range of 10–19.9% lead, the mean exposure level associated with HEPA-exhausted power sanding (52 mg/m3 ) is 9% of that associated with dry manual sanding (600 mg/m3 ) and 6% of that associated with uncontrolled power sanding (900 mg/m3 ). 

For the paint concentration range of 0–9.9% lead, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard the mean exposure level associated with HEPA-exhausted power sanding (24 mg/m3 ) is 45% of that associated with dry manual sanding (53 mg/m3 ) and 25% of the level associated with uncontrolled power sanding (97 mg/m3 ). As discussed above, the intent of simultaneously analyzing the samples for 'total dust' exposures was to compare work methods independent of differences in surface lead paint concentration. 

The data in Table V indicate that the estimated mean total dust exposure for HEPA-exhausted power sanding is 1600 mg/m3 or 24% of the level for dry manual sanding (6700 mg/m3 ) and OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard 11% of the level for uncontrolled power sanding (14,000 mg/m3 ). 

In summary, OSHA Lead Paint In Construction Standard the data indicate that airborne lead exposures from HEPA-exhausted power sanding can be expected to be approximately 20% of the levels from dry manual sanding and 10% of the levels from uncontrolled power sanding.

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