Lead Paint Removal >> Lead Paint Removal Methods In California

It should be kept in mind that this is not a rigorous comparison; it is not based on a staged side-by-side use of the different methods to remove the same mass of paint containing the same percentage weight of lead. This lack of strict methodological control somewhat weakens the case for substitution. On the other hand, this comparison is based on sampling of painters' autonomous work including the use of a variety of tools, by different painters, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California under a variety of job site conditions. 

As such, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California these are likely reasonable estimates of the amount of exposure control that can be expected from HEPA-exhausted power sanders as employed by painting contractors in the field. At the beginning of the project only 5% of the participating contractors reported that they 'sometimes' used HEPA-exhausted power sanding (Table I); the work method is clearly not widely used among residential and commercial painters. 

However, given the data above indicating that full-shift lead exposures from both dry manual sanding and Lead Paint Removal Methods In California uncontrolled power sanding can often exceed 500 mg/m3 , HEPA-exhausted power sanding should be more widely promoted as an alternative work method that can reduce exposures by 80 to 90%. 

Heat-Based Methods Other researchers have found higher exposures associated with the use of heat-based methods—removing paint using heat guns or Lead Paint Removal Methods In California open flame burning. The six heat gun 30-min sample results ranged from none detected to 5 mg/m3 , with a mean of 2.3 mg/ m3 (Table II). In a NIOSH study of abatement workers using heat guns for interior paint removal, 10 personal samples ranged from none detected to 286 mg/m3 , with 6 samples (60%) exceeding 50 mg/m3 . 

Three additional samples during exterior work were much lower (none detected to 3 mg/m3 ). NIOSH concluded that workers using heat guns are potentially overexposed to lead.(3) The five 30-min open flame burning sample results ranged from none detected to 20 mg/m3 , Lead Paint Removal Methods In California with a mean of 9.8 mg/m3 and median value of 8.0 mg/m3 (Table II). 

The San Francisco Victorian study,(2) which primarily involved monitoring during open flame burning, reported a median air lead concentration of 75 mg/m3 , Lead Paint Removal Methods In California higher than the level found in this study. Jacobs reported two sample results for a propane torch operator as 4260 mg/m3 and 10,960 mg/m3. 

Because of concerns about lead fume generation, the HUD Guidelines for the Evaluation and Lead Paint Removal Methods In California Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing prohibits the use of open flame burning and also heat guns unless temperatures are controlled to under 11008F.(25) This study did not show high airborne exposures associated with heat-based tasks. 

However, a very small number of samples was collected, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California and they are not of themselves sufficient to allow any conclusions to be drawn. Effect of Lead Paint Concentration on Airborne Lead Exposures The data presented in Table III indicate that higher lead paint concentrations were associated with higher mean airborne lead exposures. 

For the twenty-seven 30-min samples that resulted in both quantifiable lead and total dust results, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California it was possible to look directly at the correlation between the concentration of lead in the paint and in the airborne dust collected on the filter (Figure 1). 

The p-value associated with the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient demonstrates a modest but statistically significant correlation between the two percentages—as the percentage of lead in the disturbed paint surface rises, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California the percentage of lead in the airborne dust also increases. 

However, the scatter of points suggests, and it is logical to expect, that the relationship between these two percentages will vary depending on other factors, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California including the degree of paint surface and substrate disturbance and the location of the lead-containing paint layers relative to the surface. 

The 1:1 ratio has been drawn on the graph to show that, as a general rule, the points tend to fall below the line; Lead Paint Removal Methods In California the percentage of lead in the airborne dust was in most instances less than the percentage of lead in the surface paint. This may in part have been due to the fact that lead tended to be concentrated in the underlying older layers of paint. 

Of these twenty-seven 30-min air samples, 18 represent work that was done on surfaces where the top layer of paint was shown not to be lead containing. Underlying layers of lead paint were less likely to be disturbed by the work and therefore to contribute to the airborne particulate. Conversely, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California where underlying lead paint layers were disturbed, disturbance of the substrate material could have diluted the lead content of the airborne particulate. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T he full-shift exposure data clearly show that 8-hr TWA lead exposures among residential and Lead Paint Removal Methods In California commercial painters can exceed the OSHA PEL of 50 mg/m3 during exterior surface preparation work on lead paint surfaces. In general, the data support the premise that painters' airborne lead exposures depend both on the surface preparation method being used and the amount of lead in the paint. 

The 'dustier' the surface preparation method and the higher the concentration of lead in the paint, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California the higher the airborne lead exposure will be. The full-shift data indicate that the higher exposures are associated with the use of dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. Analysis and modeling based on the 30-min sample results indicate that painters are often not adequately protected by half-mask respirators when dry manual sanding or using uncontrolled power sanding on lead-containing paint. 

These results are cause for concern because both of these surface preparation methods are widely used, Lead Paint Removal Methods In California and half-mask respirators are commonly used as protection. The data indicate that HEPA-exhausted power sanding, as employed by painting contractors in the field, reduces paint dust exposures by approximately 80 to 90%. The use of these tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative when sanding on lead-containing paint.

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