Asbestos Abatement >> Mesothelioma


Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma After malignant mesothelioma has been diagnosed, Mesothelioma tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread outside the pleura or peritoneum is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. 

It is important to know the spread of the cancer in order to plan treatment. The following tests and Mesothelioma procedures may be used in the staging process: Chest x-ray : An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. 

CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of the chest and Mesothelioma abdomen, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. 

This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or Mesothelioma computerized axial tomography. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of the chest or abdomen. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). 

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and Mesothelioma a lens for viewing. A probe at the end of the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. 

The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. This procedure is also called endosonography. EUS may be used to guide fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the lung, lymph nodes, or Mesothelioma other areas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. 

An endoscope that has an ultrasound probe and a biopsy needle is inserted through the mouth and into the esophagus. The probe bounces sound waves off body tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture) of the lymph nodes near the esophagus. The sonogram Mesothelioma helps the doctor see where to place the biopsy needle to remove tissue from the lymph nodes. 

This tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body. The three ways that Mesothelioma cancer spreads in the body are: Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue. Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body. 

Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body. When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and Mesothelioma travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. 

The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, Mesothelioma the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer. The following stages are used for malignant mesothelioma: 

Stage I (Localized) Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB: In stage IA, Mesothelioma cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm. 

Cancer has not spread to the lining that covers the lung. In stage IB, Mesothelioma cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and the lining that covers the lung. Cancer may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm. 

Stage II (Advanced) In stage II, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall, the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs, the lining that covers the diaphragm, and the lining that covers the lung. Also, Mesothelioma cancer has spread into one or both of the following: Diaphragm muscle. 

Lung. Stage III (Advanced) In stage III, either of the following is true: Cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall. Cancer may have spread to: the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs; the lining that covers the diaphragm; the lining that covers the lung; Mesothelioma the diaphragm muscle; the lung. 

Cancer has spread to lymph nodes where the lung joins the bronchus, along the trachea and esophagus, between the lung and diaphragm, or below the trachea. or Cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall, the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs, Mesothelioma the lining that covers the diaphragm, and the lining that covers the lung. 

Cancer has spread into one or Mesothelioma more of the following: Tissue between the ribs and the lining of the chest wall. Fat in the cavity between the lungs. Soft tissues of the chest wall. Sac that covers the heart. 

Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes where the lung joins the bronchus, along the trachea and esophagus, between the lung and diaphragm, or Mesothelioma below the trachea. Stage IV (Advanced) In stage IV, cancer cannot be removed by surgery and is found in one or both sides of the body. Cancer may have spread to lymph nodes anywhere in the chest or above the collarbone. 

Cancer has spread in one or more of the following ways: Through the diaphragm into the peritoneum (the thin layer of tissue that lines the abdomen and Mesothelioma covers most of the organs in the abdomen). To the tissue lining the chest on the opposite side of the body as the tumor. 

To the chest wall and may be found in the rib. Into the organs in the center of the chest cavity. Into the spine. Into the sac around the heart or Mesothelioma into the heart muscle. To distant parts of the body such as the brain, spine, thyroid, or prostate.

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