Wind Damage >> Hail Damage

Hurricane waves move near shore until the water becomes shallow enough to start wave breaking. The extreme breaker height in shallow water is a purpose of water depth; bottom slope; and Hail Damage event wave height and phase. Larger waves originally break some expanse offshore, then restore and persist shoreward as smaller waves that break and restore several more times before touching shore.

  1. Waves may travel shoreward at speeds of about half the continued wind speed of the Hail Damage rainstorm. The power of a wave may be imagined by bearing in mind that a cubic yard of water weighs over 3/4 of a ton. A breaking wave progressing shoreward at high speed could be one of the most damaging components of a hurricane. Waves could cause harsh water damage not only in forcing water onshore to flood buildings, but also by hurling floating debris against standing buildings. Additional, wave action can wear away the sand that causes many shore-front edifices and cause their ruin.
  2. The incident of wave setup can multiple wave water damage. Wave setup is a procedure that causes Hail Damage still-water surfaces to rise upward locally to levels above the usual sea level as deep water waves travel into a swiftly shoaling area. As the waves break, water is flung advancing toward the beach. Following waves add to the rising water height. In Hurricane Eloise, wave setup was thought to account for over three feet of the 15-foot tidal limit, with rainstorm flow accounting for nine feet of the raised sea height. Wave setup also produces strong wearing away forces during a hurricane as the up-slope in the near-shore water level generates powerful long-shore streams.
  3. These streams are major Hail Damage features in attrition along the shore. Wave setup may be worsened by events such as beach replacement missions that pump sand from the near offshore area. These jobs raise the near-shore sea lowest slope. Usually, the natural slope of the bottom is more steady, and deep-water or provisional waves cannot get as close to shore prior to breaking; consequently packets of shorter, lower waves are produced. In these Hail Damage cases, wave setup is not a large issue in wave height.
  4. But wave setup can considerably raise wave height where depths go rapidly from deep to shallow over a short space, 45 feet to 9 feet in less than 3/5 mile in the case of Hurricane Eloise in 1975. In deliberating the hazard offered by rainstorm flow and wave action, it is helpful to classify the different places disturbed. Hurricane Rogers differentiates Hail Damage four areas on low-elevation shore zones: the wave attrition zone, the zone of wave engulfing, the still-water engulfing zone, and the high ground zone with no engulfing.
  5. The wave attrition zone, the most hazardous place, is the nearest to the ocean and is the area that encounters wearing away due to rainstorm flow and waves. The next zone, usually covering across the beach road and one or two blocks interior, is at risk from engulfing with waves, but not wearing away. Circumstances are dispelled from the wave wearing away zone, but water levels and wave heights are still substantial Hail Damagethreats. Preferably than eroding, this area is often covered up by over wash sediments moved inward from the wearing away zone.
  6. If the wave heights are high enough to sediment considerable quantities of sand, the waves are typically large enough to cause considerable Hail Damage to houses. Farther inward, most wave movement typically disperses before the still-water flooding zone is touched. Flooding by rainstorm flow can spread far inward over low landscape, and is like still-water flooding that’s normal of slow pace riverine floods. Flooding of up to 18 feet happened 50 miles inward in some parts during hurricane Hugo.
  7. Substantial rain in a hurricane adds to the threat of the rainstorm by causing floods, flash floods, and internal water damage to buildings with walls or roofs already penetrated by the wind. Hurricane Andrew, a fairly "dry" rainstorm because of its high Hail Damage forward quickness, still dumped 10 inches of precipitation on south Florida and left many houses considerably water-damaged. Water leaking into gaps between the roof sheathing soaked insulation and ceiling gypsum board and caused some edifices to fall down.
  8. Nearly 65% of homes unprotected to Andrew, and 40% of homes unprotected to Hurricane Iniki, had water damage from rain. For this article, hurricanes Hugo, Andrew, and Iniki were selected as case findings in hurricane-inflicted Hail Damage. Though quite a lot has been written concerning water damage caused by earlier rainstorms, it was not until the massive losses from the first of the case-study rainstorms, Hurricane Hugo, that case reports began concentrating on the particulars of water damage to residential houses. These three rainstorms offer both comparisons and differences.
  9. All were powerful category 3 or 4 hurricanes. All three showed the massive losses that could be caused by hurricane winds. Both Hugo and Andrew barely missed greatly populated areas with their utmost winds and rainstorm flows. Both Hail Damage were very fast going. Andrew, though, was a much more compact rainstorm than Hugo. Water damage from Andrew was negligible north of the center of Miami, about 35 miles from the eye, while water damage from Hugo was widespread as far north as Myrtle Beach, 100 miles north. Rainstorm flow Hail Damage from Andrew was insignificant, but substantial from Hugo.
  10. Hurricane Iniki, like Hugo, not only caused substantial wind damage, but also created Hail Damage and large rainstorm flow that caused extensive water damage from coastal flooding along the Kauai coast. The three rainstorms also varied in that they hit areas with diverse residential building styles: in the South Carolina area hit by Hugo, wood-frame houses with asphalt shingle roofs prevail; in Dade County, Florida, where Andrew came ashore, masonry block building is more usual than wood-frame, and tile roofing is prevalent; in Kauai County, Hawaii, corrugated metal roofing is very customary.
  11. Disastrous Hail Damage failure of one- and two-story wood-frame houses in residential areas during Andrew was seen more often than the terrible failures of other kinds of houses. Because less planning oversight is related to design and structure, residential building is particularly vulnerable to water damage during hurricanes. To be in opposition to hospitals and public edifices, which are called "fully engineered," and workplaces and light industrial shops, which are thought of as "marginally engineered," Hail Damage residential structure is categorized as "non-engineered."
  12. Traditionally, the majority of the wind damage in the United States has happened to residential structure. Fully engineered structure, on the other hand, does well in high winds, because of the consideration given to links and load paths. When residential houses are wide-open to hurricane forces, roofs are most vulnerable to Hail Damage, trailed by walls and openings, and then footings. After Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki, the Department of Housing and Urban Development reviewed water damaged homes from both rainstorms.
  13. HUD used a gauge that recognized not only the number of houses damaged, but the level of water damage, ranging from one-third or less, to two-thirds or more to each home. This recaps home components suffering Hail Damage levels of one-third or more from Hurricanes Andrew and Iniki. The article shows obviously that roofs are wind damaged more often, trailed by walls and foundations. It is worth showing that water damage was a considerable factor in both rainstorms.

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