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Advisory Base Flood Elevations The Katrina Recovery Maps (see Figure 1) include the following information: Pre-Katrina aerial photographs (as a base map) Approximate Katrina surge inundation limit (shaded area) ABFE contours (ft NGVD) Predicted inland limit Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance of damaging wave effects during the advisory base flood (red line)

Surveyed Katrina high water mark elevations More background information on ABFEs and their use can be found in Flood Recovery Guidance-Frequently Asked Questions, dated October 3, 2005, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and available at: www.fema.gov/hazards/floods/recoverydata/katrina_ms_resources.shtm Communities are encouraged to use the Katrina Recovery Maps. 

They may continue to enforce their adopted FIRMs and associated design and construction requirements. However, by using the ABFEs any reconstruction Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance or new construction (following Katrina and before issuance of revised FIRMs, expected in 2007) will be at much less risk from future flood damage.

And will be eligible for reduced flood insurance premiums (new and reconstructed buildings can be rated using BFEs and flood hazard zones on the effective FIRM, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance until revised FIRMs are adopted by the community). [End text box] Flood Protection Levels for Post-Katrina Reconstruction and New Construction 

Until revised FIRMs are published by FEMA and adopted by communities, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance those communities are free to regulate reconstruction and new construction using several methods: Continue to use pre-Katrina FIRMs (understanding that this would knowingly put people and buildings at risk) Modify the use of pre-Katrina FIRMs (e.g., add freeboard to the pre-Katrina BFEs)

Use the Katrina Recovery (Advisory Base Flood Elevation) Maps Modify the Katrina Recovery Maps (e.g., conduct a more detailed wave analysis and add to the 1 percent annual chance stillwater elevation, replacing ABFE contours shown on the maps) Develop other maps Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and methods (as long as the resulting BFEs and flood hazard zones are no less restrictive than the pre-Katrina FIRMs) 

Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages, both for implementation Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and for the long-term protection of buildings constructed after hurricane Katrina. These are summarized in Table 2. [Begin table] Table 2. Comparison of Various Methods for Providing Post-Katrina Flood Protection to Reconstructed Buildings and New Construction Advantages: 

Continue Use of Pre-Katrina FIRMs No change from pre-Katrina flood hazard maps Disadvantages: Continue Use of Pre-Katrina FIRMs Underestimates inland Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance extent of flooding during base flood Underestimates flood depths Underestimates inland extent of the V Zone and damaging wave effects

Does not protect buildings outside the pre-Katrina SFHA against damage during the base flood Limits eligibility for post-Katrina hazard mitigation grants Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and other reconstruction funds Advantages: Add Freeboard to Pre-Katrina FIRMs(where freeboard is less than that indicated by updated 1 percent annual chance flood analysis)

Provides increased flood protection for buildings within the pre-Katrina V Zone Provides increased flood protection for buildings near the inland limit of the pre-Katrina A Zone Buildings elevated Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance to the new (freeboard) elevation will be eligible for flood insurance premium discounts (they can be rated using the pre-Katrina FIRM) Disadvantages: 

Add Freeboard to Pre-Katrina FIRMs(where freeboard is less than that Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance indicated by updated 1 percent annual chance flood analysis) Underestimates inland extent of flooding during base flood Does not protect buildings outside the pre-Katrina SFHA against damage during the base flood

Does not expand the V Zone inland, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and does not protect buildings in the seaward portion of the pre-Katrina A Zone against wave damage Does not fully protect any buildings subject to the updated 1 percent annual chance flood Limits eligibility for post-Katrina hazard mitigation grants and other reconstruction funds Advantages: Use Katrina Recovery (ABFE) Maps

Uses the latest 1 percent annual chance flood elevation and mapping guidance to characterize the extent, depth Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and severity of updated base flood hazards ABFEs near the coast may be comparable to revised BFEs expected in 2007 Provides flood protection consistent with the latest estimate of the updated base flood

Reduces potential floor elevation Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and foundation differences between buildings reconstructed/constructed to ABFEs and those constructed after adoption of revised BFEs. Buildings elevated to the ABFE will be eligible for flood insurance premium discounts (they can be rated using the pre-Katrina FIRM) Disadvantages: Use Katrina Recovery (ABFE) Maps

Large differences between pre-Katrina building floor elevations Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and post- Katrina building floor elevations ABFEs near the inland limit of flooding and in areas sheltered from wave effects may overstate wave hazards and wave crest elevations Advantages: Modify the Katrina Recovery (ABFE) Maps (via improved wave height analysis)

Same as ABFE entries above Reduce wave height overestimates introduced by the ABFE approach Disadvantages: Modify the Katrina Recovery (ABFE) Maps (via improved wave height analysis) Large differences between pre-Katrina building floor elevations Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance and post- Katrina building floor elevations Advantages: Other Methods Vary with method selected Disadvantages: 

Other Methods Vary with method selected [End table] Using the Advisory Base Flood Elevations Communities can make use of the Advisory Base Flood Elevations by those methods summarized in Table 2. In addition, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance communities can take several steps that will help to protect reconstruction and new construction:

Define the revised inland extent of the SFHA using ground contours equal to the stillwater elevations contained in Table 1. Define the revised inland extent of the coastal high hazard area (V Zone) based on a 4-foot stillwater depth (the depth required to support a 3-foot wave), Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance using whatever new 1 percent stillwater elevation the community adopts. 

If the community adopts the stillwater elevations in Table 1, ground elevations corresponding to the new inland V Zone limit are shown in Table 3. In most cases, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance the first encounter with that ground elevation (starting at the shoreline and moving inland) will be the inland V Zone limit.

Define the inland extent of a Coastal A Zone (see Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory, Design and Construction in Coastal A Zones) based on a 2-foot stillwater depth (the depth required to support a 1.5-foot wave), using whatever new 1 percent stillwater elevation the community adopts. If the community adopts the stillwater elevations in Table 1, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance ground elevations corresponding to the inland limit of the Coastal A Zone are shown in Table.  

In most cases, the first encounter with that ground elevation (starting at the shoreline and moving inland) will be the inland limit of the Coastal A Zone. Implement a local ABFE revision process, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance to allow for special circumstances where property owners can supply better topographic data or information which will result in a more accurate delineation of flood hazards. 

Note: such a revision process should not allow reduction of the stillwater elevations in Table 1. If a community has adopted the International Building Code or the International Residential Code, Ceiling Leak Covered By Home Insurance define the "Design Flood Elevation" as the ABFE. Define the "Flood Hazard Area" as the inland extent of flooding using the ABFE procedure.

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The correlation is even stronger than just by the day of test. Because each test had a 250 nm probe and a 4500 nm probe, the test-to-test correlation was strong as seen in Figure 11. The strength of the correlation seems to reinforce the variability in the performance of the material and not just un  read more..