Structural Drying >> Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe

The first drying phase can be modeled by the normal diffusion equation (Equation 2) for which analytic solutions can be found in the literature (e.g., Baehr and Stephan 2003; Hens 2007; and Tautz 1971). The second drying phase is Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe assumed to start at critical moisture content. 

Then the following balance (Equation 4) can be written:(4)where= saturation vapor pressure= surface transfer coefficient for vapor= relative humidity= vapor diffusion resistance factor= diffusion coefficient in air= density of water= critical moisture content = hygroscopic equilibrium moisture content
Solving this equation for yields the actual position of Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe the moisture front according to Equation 5. 

It becomes apparent that the drying coefficient is indeedcorrelated with the vapor diffusion resistance factor µ. However, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe it is also particularly dependent on the critical moisture content. This critical moisture content is defined as themoisture content at which a continuous liquid phase is apparent in the pore system, enabling considerable liquid transport.

Typically, the moisture content at which the liquid permeability starts to strongly increase is taken, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe which is not a satisfyingdefinition. On the other hand, the drying coefficient can be used todetermine the critical moisture content. This was done for thebuilding materials listed in Table 2. With these values, thesharp-front model was used to calculate the required dryingtimes. 

These times corresponded with an error of less than 1%with the times obtained by a full hygrothermal numerical simulation.It can be concluded that the proposed drying coefficientdoes not contain exactly the same information as the vapordiffusion resistance. Both parameters are weakly correlated, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe but the drying coefficient contains additional informationabout liquid transport in the unsaturated over-hygroscopic moisture range. 

The proposed drying coefficient is hence Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe a useful additional material property that allows for describing these moisture transfer properties of building materials by one singlenumber. The drying coefficient is an additional single-value material property. It describes the ability of a material to dry out.

With this drying coefficient, designers obtain a new assessment criterion for material selection similar to other materialproperties such as density, compressive strength, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe or thermalconductivity. This is particularly valuable for cases where drying and unsaturated moisture transport are important, as for example, capillary-active internal insulation for energy retrofit of the historic building stock, where vapor open, fast dryingmaterials are desired. 

Another useful application of the dryingcoefficient is the estimation of required drying time. This might be of interest, for example, for the drying out if built-inmoisture Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe or in damage cases (flood, drainage defect, etc.),where materials have become wet and need to dry out again. 

The drying coefficient is hence useful for both comparingdifferent materials with regard to their moisture transportproperties and estimating the required time to dry a material ofa certain thickness. CONCLUSION This paper presented a comprehensive analysis of thedrying process Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe and its influencing parameters. The governing processes were identified and a new, single-number drying coefficient for building materials was proposed. 

It is defined asthe square root of the second drying phase duration divided bythe sample height. For its correct determination, the dryingshould start at saturation, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe and the climatic conditions shouldbe relatively constant. For most building materials, instead ofthe second drying phase duration, the overall drying time canbe used. 

The drying coefficient gives a measure for how longit takes to dry out a certain thickness of wet material.In addition, it was shown that the proposed drying coefficient contains additional information about the moisturetransport behavior within the unsaturated, over-hygroscopicmoisture range. It is only weakly correlated with the waterabsorption coefficient Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe and the vapor diffusion resistancefactor. 

The drying coefficient forms a valuable addition tothese well-established moisture transport material properties.It allows a better selection and distinction of building materialsbased on its relevant moisture transport properties. It is therefore desirable that this coefficient will be used and accepted byboth building research Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe and practice.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Most of the presented research was conducted during thePhD project of G.A. Scheffler, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe which was funded by theGerman foundation Cusanuswerk. Additional support wasgranted by the German Ministry for Economy and Technologyin the frame of the MASEA project. Completion of this workwas possible due to a Hans-Christian- Ørsted postdoc scholarship at DTU (Technical University of Denmark).

In addition to this financial support, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe the authors are grateful for valuable discussions with Professor P. Häupl (TU Dresden) and Associate Professor H. Janssen (DTU). When the amount of dehumidification equipment invoiced is within an arm’s reach of the amount calculated by the suggested formula used by the claims representative, it is acceptable to honor the difference on the insurance claim. 

This difference can be due the availability of the equipment at hand; however, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe when the difference is significant (greater than 10%-15%), the excessive invoiced dehumidification capacity should not be considered. Thermaline or Cryogenic drying  Intended for manuscript and rare book collections bound in leather and vellum  Uses blast freezers at very low temperatures  

Minimizes distortion of materials  Safe for coated papers Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe and water-soluble media  More expensive than vacuum freeze drying  Long drying times  No access to records as drying is done offsite Description of drying methods above taken from The Efficacy of Various Drying Methods, by Hilary A. Kaplan and Kathleen A. Ludwig, Document Conservation Laboratory. 

National Archives and Records Administration, available at http://www.archives.gov/preservation/disasterresponse/drying-techniques.html and also from Emergency Salvage of Wet Books and Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe Records, by Sally Buchanan, Preservation Leaflet 3.6, NEDCC, available at http://nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/3Emergency_Management/06SalvageWetBooks.php. 

The information and links provided by NARA are offered as a service and do not imply endorsement of any company, institution, Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe or person. The scale of the emergency and types of materials affected will determine the specific actions or techniques to be taken and whether in house salvage is possible or whether external resources and expertise are necessary.

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