Structural Drying >> Drying Equipment

FEMA Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisories FEMA has prepared a series of Recovery Advisories that present guidance for design, construction, and restoration of buildings in areas subject to coastal flooding and high winds from Hurricane Katrina. To date, Drying Equipment eight advisories have been prepared and are included in this appendix:- Reconstruction Guidance Using Hurricane Katrina Surge Inundation and Advisory Base Flood Elevation Maps.

Initial Restoration for Flooded Buildings- Design and Construction in Coastal A Zones- The ABCs of Returning to Flooded Buildings- Attachment of Brick Veneer in High-Wind Regions- Attachment of Rooftop Equipment in High-Wind Regions- Rooftop Attachment of Lightning Protection Drying Equipment Systems in High-Wind Regions- Designing for Flood Levels Above the BFE 

These Advisories are also available online at http://www.fema.gov/rebuild/mat/mat_katrina.shtm where future Advisories will also be posted.Reconstruction Guidance Using Hurricane Katrina Surge Inundation Drying Equipment and Advisory Base Flood Elevation Maps Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory FEMA November 2005 Purpose: 

To discuss available flood hazard information and to recommend reconstruction practices using Advisory Base Flood Elevation (ABFE) Maps.Key Issues Following Hurricane Katrina, FEMA updated its flood frequency analyses to include Drying Equipment more recent storm surge data (including storm surge stillwater levels measured after Katrina). 

The results of the analysis show that the updated 1 percent annual chance stillwater levels (also known as the 100-year stillwater levels) are 3 to 8 feet above the stillwater levels previously used to produce the pre-Katrina Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). For post-Katrina recovery purposes,  Drying Equipment FEMA devised a method to approximate 1 percent annual chance wave crest elevations. 

The results of this effort are known as Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFEs, sometimes referred to as Advisory Flood Elevations [AFEs]), which are Drying Equipment shown on a series of 228 maps for Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, Mississippi. These maps are also known as "Katrina Recovery Maps" (see Figure 1).Figure 1 caption. 

Sample Hurricane Katrina Surge Inundation and Advisory Base Flood Elevation Map. The shaded region in blue indicates the approximate inland extent of storm surge inundation experienced during Katrina; the ABFE contours are shown in yellow Drying Equipment and the predicted inland limit of damaging wave effects during the advisory base flood is shown by the red line. 

Blue points indicate surveyed Katrina high water mark elevations. The ABFEs are updated estimates of the 1 percent annual chance flood elevations, Drying Equipment and are generally 5 to 12 feet higher than the base flood elevations (BFEs) shown on the pre-Katrina FIRMs. ABFEs also extend farther inland than the Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) shown on the pre-Katrina FIRMs.

The Katrina Recovery Maps also show the approximate inland extent of storm surge inundation experienced during Hurricane Katrina. Since Katrina exceeded the BFE in most locations (based on the updated flood frequency analysis), Drying Equipment the inland extent of Katrina storm surge penetration generally lies inland of the ABFE limit. 

However, where the Katrina impact was less extreme (very near the eye where the hurricane winds are small, to the left of the eye where the peak winds blow offshore rather than onshore, and far to the right of the eye where the winds weaken), Drying Equipment the Katrina surge penetration properly lies seaward of the ABFE limit.

FEMA and the State of Mississippi will conduct detailed studies during 2005 and 2006 to produce revised FIRMs. The revised FIRMs will result from more detailed storm surge stillwater analyses and more detailed wave analysis methods than those used to produce the ABFE maps. As a result, Drying Equipment BFEs on the revised FIRMs may differ from the ABFEs. 

In the interim, the ABFEs should be treated as the best available 1 percent annual chance elevation information.Although the information contained on the Katrina Recovery Maps is advisory in nature, Drying Equipment communities are encouraged to use ABFEs to regulate reconstruction and new construction until the revised FIRMs are produced by FEMA.

Until such time as the revised FIRMs are published by FEMA and adopted by communities, those communities may use the pre-Katrina FIRMs, or Katrina Recovery Maps, Drying Equipment or other flood elevations to regulate reconstruction and new construction (as long as the other flood elevations are not lower than those shown on the pre-Katrina FIRMs).

Advisory Base Flood Elevations (ABFEs)The pre-Katrina FIRMs for communities in Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties were published between the early 1980s and 2002; Drying Equipment the current maps underestimate today's risk. Following Hurricane Katrina, FEMA updated the stillwater flood frequency analysis for coastal Mississippi to include tide and storm surge stillwater data for the past 25 plus years. 

These revised stillwater elevations formed the basis for FEMA's calculation of ABFEs.The revised 1 percent annual chance storm surge stillwater levels were published by FEMA on October 3, 2005, for Hancock, Harrison,  Drying Equipment and Jackson Counties in Mississippi (see Table 1). The procedure which makes use of these elevations to compute ABFEs is illustrated in Figure 2 and the example below.

Updated 1 Percent Annual Chance (100-Year) Stillwater Elevations for Use in Calculating ABFEs Jackson County, Mississippi: Gulf of Mexico Shoreline - 14, Back Bay Shorelines - 12 Harrison County, Mississippi: Gulf of Mexico Shoreline - 18, Drying Equipment Back Bay Shorelines 16 Hancock County, Mississippi: Gulf of Mexico Shoreline 20, Back Bay Shorelines - 18.

How to determine the Advisory Base Flood Elevation based on the site's ground elevation, applicable advisory elevation, Drying Equipment and estimated wave height. Communities and designers may note that the ABFE procedure is a simplified version of FEMA's Wave Height Analysis for Flood Insurance Studies (WHAFIS) program used to map base flood conditions on coastal FIRMs. 

The ABFE procedure does not account for wave attenuation due to dense stands of vegetation, buildings, or other obstructions. Nor does it account for wave growth Drying Equipment and regeneration across flooded upland areas. Thus, BFEs on the revised FIRMs (anticipated in 2007) may differ from the ABFEs computed during this interim period. 

The ABFEs can be considered the best available data at this time.Figure 3 illustrates the relationships between the stillwater flood elevation, ground elevations, Drying Equipment associated 1 percent annual chance stillwater flood depths, ABFEs, and associated flood hazard zones.Figure 3 caption. Cross-section showing 1 percent annual chance stillwater elevation, stillwater depth and ABFE, and inland limits of V Zone and Coastal A Zone. [end of caption]

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