Structural Drying >> Flat Roof Leak Repair

In addition to the general guidance given in BIA Technical Notes 28 and 28B, the following are recommended:Note: In areas that are also susceptible to high seismic loads, brick veneer should be evaluated by an engineer to ensure it can resist seismic Flat Roof Leak Repair and wind design loads.Stud Spacing: For new construction, space studs 16" on center, so that ties can be anchored at this spacing.

Tie Fasteners: Ring-shank nails are recommended in lieu of smooth-shank nails. A minimum embedment of 2" is suggested.Ties: For use with wood studs: two-piece adjustable ties are recommended. However, where corrugated steel ties are used, use 22-gauge minimum, Flat Roof Leak Repair 7/8" wide by 6" long, complying with ASTM A 366 with a zinc coating complying with ASTM A 153 Class B2. 

For ties for use with steel studs, see BIA "Technical Notes 28B – Brick Veneer/Steel Stud Walls." Stainless steel ties should be used in areas within 3,000 feet of the coast.Tie InstallationInstall ties as the brick is laid so that the ties Flat Roof Leak Repair are properly aligned with the mortar joints.Install brick ties spaced per Table 1. Studs should be installed at 16" spacing. 

Veneer tie locations for 24" stud spacing are included for repairing damaged veneer on existing buildings with the wider stud spacing.Locate ties within 8" of door Flat Roof Leak Repair and window openings and within 12" of the top of veneer sections.Bend the ties at a 90-degree angle at the nail head in order to minimize tie flexing when the ties are loaded in tension or compression (Figure 9).Figure 9. Bend ties at nail heads

Embed ties in joints so that mortar completely encapsulates the ties. Embed a minimum of 1.5" into the bed joint, Flat Roof Leak Repair with a minimum mortar cover of 5/8" to the outside face of the wall (Figure 10).Figure 10. Tie embedment Table 1. Brick Veneer Tie Spacing Wind Speed (mph)(3-Second Peak Gust) Maximum Vertical Spacing for Ties 16" stud spacing 24" stud spacing.

Nab Wind Pressure (psf) Maximum Vertical Spacing for Ties16" stud spacing 24" stud spacing. The tie spacing is based on wind loads derived from Method 1 of ASCE 7-02, Flat Roof Leak Repair for the corner area of buildings up to 30' high, located in Exposure B with an importance factor (I) of 1.0 and no topographic influence. 

For other heights, exposure, or importance factor, Flat Roof Leak Repair an engineered design is recommended.2. Fastener strength is for wall framing with a Specific Gravity G=0.55 with moisture contents less than 19% and the following adjustment factors, Ct=0.8; and CD, CM, Ceg, and Ctn=1.0.3. 

Nail embedment depth of 2" for 2.5" long 8d common (0.131" diameter) ring-shank fasteners a Maximum spacing allowed by ACI 530-05b 24" stud spacing exceeds the Flat Roof Leak Repair maximum horizontal tie spacing of ACI 530-05 prescribed for wind speeds over 100 mph[End table]Attachment of Rooftop Equipment in High-Wind Regions

Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory May 2006, Revised July 2006 FEMA Purpose: To recommend practices for designing and installing rooftop equipment that will enhance wind resistance in high-wind regions. Note: For attachment of lightning protection systems, Flat Roof Leak Repair see Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory on Rooftop Attachment of Lightning Protection Systems in High-Wind Regions. 

Key Issues Rooftop equipment frequently becomes detached from rooftops during hurricanes. Water can enter the building at displaced equipment (see Figure 1); displaced equipment can puncture Flat Roof Leak Repair and tear roof coverings (thus allowing water to leak into the building). Equipment blown from a roof can damage buildings and injure people. 

Damaged equipment may no longer provide service to the building. Figure 1 caption. This gooseneck was attached Flat Roof Leak Repair with only two small screws. A substantial amount of water was able to enter the building during the hurricane. 

Construction Guidance Mechanical Penthouse: By placing equipment in mechanical penthouses rather than being exposed on the roof, equipment within penthouses is shielded from high-wind loads and windborne debris (see Figure 2). Therefore, Flat Roof Leak Repair use of mechanical penthouses designed and constructed in accordance with a current building code are recommended, particularly for critical and essential facilities.

Design Loads and Safety Factors: Loads on rooftop equipment should be determined in accordance with the 2005 edition of ASCE 7.Figure 2 caption. This 30' x 10' x 8' 18,000-pound HVAC unit was attached to its curb with 16 straps (one screw per strap). Although the wind speeds were estimated to be only 85 to 95 miles per hour (3-second peak gust), Flat Roof Leak Repair it blew off the building. 

Note: For guidance on load calculations, see "Calculating Wind Loads and Anchorage Requirements for Rooftop Equipment," ASHRAE Journal, volume 48, number 3, March 2006.A minimum safety factor of 3 is recommended for critical and essential facilities, Flat Roof Leak Repair and a minimum safety factor of 2 is recommended for other buildings. 

Loads and resistance should also be calculated for heavy pieces of equipment (see Figure 2).Simplified Attachment Table: To anchor fans, small HVAC units, and relief air hoods, Flat Roof Leak Repair the following minimum attachment schedule is recommended (see Table 1) (note: the attachment of the curb to the roof deck also needs to be designed to resist the design loads):

Number of #12 Screws for Base Case Attachment of Rooftop EquipmentCase No.: 1Curb Size Flat Roof Leak Repair and Equipment Type: 12"x 12" Curb with Gooseneck Relief Air HoodEquipment Attachment: Hood Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 1.6Case No.: 2

Curb Size and Equipment Type: 12"x 12" Gooseneck Relief Air Hood with Flange Equipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 22 Gauge Steel Roof Deck Fastener Factor for Each Side Flat Roof Leak Repair of Curb or Flange: 2.8Case No.: 3Curb Size and Equipment Type: 12"x 12" Gooseneck Relief Air Hood with FlangeEquipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 15/32" OSB 

Roof Deck Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 2.9Case No.: 4Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" Curb with Gooseneck Relief Air Hood Flat Roof Leak Repair Equipment Attachment: Hood Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 4.6Case No.: 5Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" 

Gooseneck Relief Air Hood Flat Roof Leak Repair with Flange Equipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 22 Gauge Steel Roof Deck Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 8.1 Case No.: 6 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" Gooseneck Relief Air Hood with Flange Equipment Attachment: Flange Screwed to 15/32" OSB 

Roof Deck Fastener Factor Flat Roof Leak Repair for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 8.2 Case No.: 7 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 24"x 24" Curb with Exhaust Fan Equipment Attachment: Fan Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 2.5 Case No.: 8 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 36"x 36" 

Curb with Exhaust Fan Equipment Attachment: Fan Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb or Flange: 3.3 Case No.: 9 Curb Size and Equipment Type: 5'-9"x 3'- 8" Curb with 2'- 8" high HVAC Unit Equipment Attachment: HVAC Unit Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb Flat Roof Leak Repair or Flange: 4.5*Case No.: 10

Curb Size and Equipment Type: 5'-9"x 3'- 8" Curb with 2'- 8" high Relief Air Hood Equipment Attachment: Hood Screwed to Curb Fastener Factor for Each Side of Curb Flat Roof Leak Repair or Flange: 35.6*

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