Structural Drying >> Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage

Design and Construction in Coastal A Zones Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory FEMA December 2005 Purpose: To recommend design and construction practices in coastal areas where wave and flood conditions during the base flood will be less severe than in V Zones, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage but still cause significant damage to typical light-frame construction Key Issues

Recent post-storm investigations have shown that typical A Zone construction techniques (e.g., wood-frame, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage light gauge steel or masonry walls on shallow footings or slabs, etc.) are subject to damage when exposed to less than 3-foot breaking waves, which is the current threshold for V Zone conditions.

Coastal A zone buildings that employ typical residential Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage and light commercial walls to elevate and support habitable space above the flood level will be susceptible to flood damage (see Figure 1). Laboratory tests and recent field investigations confirm that breaking wave heights as small as 1.5 feet will cause failure of these types of walls (see Figures 2 and 3).

Failure of wood-frame walls used to support a coastal building, which was subjected to shallow flooding, small waves, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage and floating debris (Hurricane Opal).Figure 2. Masonry walls destroyed by 3 feet of stillwater flooding and small waves (Hurricane Dennis).Figure 3. Failure of wood-frame wall, brick veneer, and windows as a result of 4 feet of stillwater flooding and small waves (Hurricane Katrina).

Other flood hazards associated with coastal waves (e.g., floating debris, high velocity flow, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage erosion and scour) also damage A Zone type construction in coastal areas (see Figures 4 and 5).Figure 4. Failure of A Zone type foundation in coastal area, not subject to V Zone conditions (Hurricane Fran). Damage to light frame walls due to floating debris and small waves. 

The damaged home was in the third row back from a bay shoreline (Hurricane Ivan).NFIP flood hazard mapping is generally divided into two categories, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage V Zone and A Zone. In coastal areas, the A Zone category could be subdivided into "Coastal A Zone” and "A Zone.” Base flood conditions in the Coastal A Zone will be similar to, but less severe than, those in the V Zone.

Base flood conditions in the A Zone will be similar to those in riverine or lake floodplains. The Coastal A Zone is not shown on the FIRM at present; Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage therefore, communities, designers, and owners will have to determine whether a site lies within a Coastal A Zone.V Zone design and construction standards are recommended in Coastal A Zones subject to erosion, high velocity flow, and/or wave heights greater than 1.5 feet.

Illustration describing A Zones in Coastal Areas Coastal A: areas with potential for breaking waves and erosion during base flood A: areas with shallow flooding only, where potential for breaking waves and erosion is low[End illustration]Coastal A Zone, Defined[Begin text box]Coastal A Zone: area landward of a V Zone, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage or landward of an open coast without mapped V Zones. 

In a Coastal A Zone, the principal source of flooding will be astronomical tides, storm surges, seiches or tsunamis, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage not riverine flooding. During base flood conditions, the potential for breaking wave heights between 1.5 feet and 3.0 feet will exist (see Figure 6). Coastal A Zone design and construction practices described herein are not mandated by the NFIP, but are recommended for communities that wish to adopt higher floodplain management standards. 

Community Rating System (CRS) credits are available for doing so. Note that some Coastal A Zone practices may be required by the International Building Code, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage through its reference to ASCE 24-98.[End text box]Figure 6. Plan view showing Coastal A Zone landward of V Zone (source: ASCE 24-05).Coastal A Zone Construction Guidance 

Because of the presence of damaging waves, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage V Zone design, construction, and certification practices are recommended for Coastal A Zones. Coastal A Zone construction should include:Use of open foundations (pile or pier) designed to resist all base flood conditions (waves, high velocity flow, erosion and scour, floodborne debris). 

Where high velocity flow, scour, and erosion will not be experienced under base flood conditions, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage a traditional stem wall foundation may be acceptable – see Table 1. Elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member supporting the lowest floor above the base flood wave crest elevation (see Figure 7).

Since waves Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage and debris will be impacting on the floor joists and other foundation elements during the base flood, do not follow current NFIP minimum requirements that allow the lowest floor's walking surface to be set at the wave crest elevation in Zone A.Figure 7. Recommended post-Katrina building standards in Coastal A Zones.

Use of flood-resistant materials above the level of the walking surface of the lowest floor (in the event that future flooding exceeds the lowest floor Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage level).Specification of connections between the foundation and the elevated building that are capable of withstanding simultaneous wind and flood forces. 

Post-Katrina investigations found many Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage foundation-to-building connections to be deficient (see Figure 8). Figure 8. Post-Katrina investigations showed that many buildings were attached to foundation piers with light gauge metal straps. These straps failed in many instances. A stronger (preferably bolted) connection is recommended when attaching Coastal A Zone buildings to their foundations.

Use of space below the lowest horizontal structural member for parking, access, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage or storage only. Adding sufficient freeboard to allow parking beneath the building will not only reduce future flood damages, but will also lower flood insurance premiums.Use of screen, lattice, or breakaway walls if space below the elevated floor is enclosed. 

Note: until flood regulations are changed, breakaway walls in Coastal A Zones must be equipped with flood openings.Additional guidance for design and construction in Coastal A Zones can be found in FEMA 499, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage Home Builder's Guide to Coastal Construction. The publication is a series of 31 fact sheets that provide recommended design and construction practices for foundations, connections, building envelope, etc. 

Fact Sheet 2 summarizes recommended practices for Coastal A Zones, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage and references other fact sheets that provide more details.[Begin table]Table 1. Foundation Recommendations for Coastal A Zones (Users should read across from a foundation type to see under what soil and base flood conditions that foundation is acceptable. 

A foundation must be capable of resisting all base flood conditions likely to exist at the site, or it should not be used. For example, a properly constructed pier on a shallow footing will generally withstand 1.5- to 3.0-foot wave heights, but should not be used where soils are erodible, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage and where high velocity flow is possible, or where large floodborne debris may be present.)

Wave heights greater than 3.0 feet mapped as V Zone: fill, slab, crawlspace, Metal Roof Leak From Hail Damage wall foundations not permitted. Deep means sufficiently deep to withstand erosion and scour, including that induced by the presence of the foundation itself.

Why Do I Have A Sewage Smell In My House

Results of odor and odorants measurement at Districts A, B, C, D and E.In the instrumental analysis for individual sulfur odorants, H2S and CH3SH concentrations were higher than DMS or DMDS both before and after the agent treatment. The average NH3 concentrations before and after the treatment of th  read more..

Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor

Material Properties Materials are either amorphous or crystalline. The difference between these two descriptions depends on the positions of the atoms in them. The atoms in amorphous materials are randomly arranged with no long range order Asbestos Abatement Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. An example of an amorphous material is glass.  read more..

Black Mold Caused By A Sewer Backup

The Community Folk Art Center, 805 E. Genesee St., will remain closed this week as officials continue to clean up. Water leaked through the ceiling and the sewer backed up, said Kevin Leonardi, its marketing specialist. Staff members quickly moved art and equipment to safety, but repairs were needed  read more..

How To Get Rid Of Mold

Equipment Moisture Meters: Measure/Monitor Moisture Levels in Building Materials Moisture meters may be helpful for measuring the moisture content in a variety of building materials following water damage. They can also be used to monitor the process of drying damaged materials. These direct reading  read more..

Debris Removal From The Colorado Floods

2013 Floods  Guidance: Landfill Management of Flood Debris Air Pollution Control Division / Stationary Sources Program The Department will exercise enforcement discretion for landfills which exceed their permitted waste acceptance limit as a result of flood debris disposal. This relief is speci  read more..

Radon Testing

Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV) systems shall not be installed in rooms that contain friable asbestos. 14.8.4 In HRV installations, supply and exhaust ports in the interior shall be located a minimum of 12 feet apart. The exterior supply and exhaust ports shall be positioned to avoid blockage by sno  read more..

Empowered Water Carpet Cleaning

Flood Water After a Disaster or Emergency When returning to your home after a hurricane or flood, be aware that flood water may contain sewage. Protect yourself and your family by following these steps:Inside the Home Keep children and Water Extraction Empowered Water Carpet Cleaning pets out of the affected area until cleanup has b  read more..

Cleanup After Hurricane Damage

Health Effects of Exposure to Water-Damaged New Orleans Homes Six Months After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Objectives.We investigated the relation between respiratory symptoms and exposure to water-damaged homes and Water Damage Cleanup After Hurricane Damage the effect of respirator use in post hurricane New Orleans, Louisiana  read more..

How To Restore Flood Damaged Photos

The first formulation of standards of practice and professional relations by any group of art conservators was produced by the IIC-American Group (now AIC) Committee on Professional Standards and Procedures. Document restoration How To Restore Flood Damaged Photos

Formed at the second regular meeting of the IIC-AG, in  read more..

Symptoms Of Mold Allergy

Follow These Steps To Clean Symptoms of mold allergy: Begin drying all wet materials. As soon as possible, begin drying any materials that are wet. For severe moisture problems, use fans and dehumidifiers and mov  read more..