Structural Drying >> Roof Leak Repair Cost

As an option to securing the conductors with stripping plies, conductor connectors that do not rely on prongs (such as the one shown in Figure 6) could be used. However, because the magnitude of the dynamic loads induced by the conductor are unknown Roof Leak Repair Cost and because of the lack of data on the resistance provided by adhesively-attached connectors.

Attachment with stripping plies is the preferred option because the stripping plies shield the conductor from the wind.Figure 6 caption: Adhesively-attached conductor connector that does not use prongs. [end of Figure 6 caption]If adhesive-applied conductor connectors are used, Roof Leak Repair Cost it is recommended that they be spaced more closely than the 3 foot spacing required by NFPA 780 and UL 96A. 

Depending upon wind loads, spacings in the range of 6 to 12 inches on center may be needed in the corner regions of the roof, Roof Leak Repair Cost with spacings in the range of 12 to 18 inches on center at roof perimeters (see ASCE 7 for size of corner regions).[end of text box]Mechanically Attached Single-Ply Membranes: It is recommended that conductors be placed parallel and within 8 inches of membrane fastener rows. 

Where the conductor falls between or is perpendicular to membrane fastener rows, install an additional row of membrane fasteners where the conductor will be located Roof Leak Repair Cost and install a membrane cover-strip over the membrane fasteners. Place the conductor over the cover-strip and secure the conductor as recommended above.

Note: By following the above recommendations, additional rows of membrane fasteners beyond those needed to attach the membrane may be needed to accommodate layout of the conductors. The additional membrane fasteners Roof Leak Repair Cost and cover-strip should be coordinated with and installed by the roofing contractor.

Standing Seam Metal Roofs: It is recommended that pre-manufactured mechanically attached clips that are commonly used to attach various items to roof panels be used. After anchoring the clips to the panel ribs, Roof Leak Repair Cost the air terminal base plates and conductor connectors are anchored to the panel clips. 

In lieu of conductor connectors that have prongs, Roof Leak Repair Cost it is recommended that mechanically attached looped connectors be installed.Conductor Splice Connectors: In lieu of pronged splice connectors (see Figure 7), bolted splice connectors are recommended (see Figure 8). 

It is recommended that strips of flashing membrane (as recommended above) be placed approximately 3 inches from either side of the splice connector to minimize conductor movement Roof Leak Repair Cost and avoid the possibility of the conductors from becoming disconnected. To allow for observation during maintenance inspections, do not cover the connectors.

Periodic Inspection and Maintenance: Each spring, Roof Leak Repair Cost it is recommended that the lightning protection system be inspected to verify that connectors are still attached to the roof surface and still engage the conductors. Also check to ensure that splice connectors are still secure. Inspections are also recommended after high wind events.Figure 7 caption: 

A failed prong-type splice connector. If conductors become detached from the roof, they are likely to pull from pronged splice connectors. [end of Figure 7 caption]Figure 8 caption: To avoid free ends of connectors being whipped around by wind, Roof Leak Repair Cost bolted splice connectors are recommended because they provide a more reliable connection. [end of Figure 8 caption]

Strengthening Attachment of Existing Systems: On critically important buildings that use adhesively-attached connectors and pronged splice connectors, Roof Leak Repair Cost it is recommended that attachment modifications based on Construction Guidance be made in order to provide more reliable securement.[End of Recovery Advisory]

Designing for Flood Levels Above the BFE Hurricane Katrina Recovery Advisory FEMA July 2006Purpose: To recommend design Roof Leak Repair Cost and construction practices that reduce the likelihood of flood damage in the event that flood levels exceed the Base Flood Elevation (BFE).Key Issues• 

BFEs are established at a flood level, including wave effects, that has a 1-percent chance of being equaled Roof Leak Repair Cost or exceeded in any given year, also known as the 100-year flood or base flood. Floods more severe and less frequent than the 1-percent flood can occur in any year.• Flood levels during some recent storms have exceeded BFEs depicted on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), sometimes by several feet (see Figure 1). 

In many communities, flooding extended inland, well beyond the 100-year floodplain (Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA)) shown on the FIRM (see Figure 2).Figure 1 caption. Levee failures Roof Leak Repair Cost and overtopping during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (2005) resulted in flood levels (solid red line) several feet above the BFE (dashed red line) over large portions of the greater New Orleans area. [end of caption]Figure 2 caption. 

Map showing storm surge inundation by Hurricane Katrina at Long Beach (blue shading). Katrina flooding extended beyond the limits of the mapped 100-year floodplain (SFHA) (photo source: NOAA). This figure shows the approximate inundation limit, Roof Leak Repair Cost and the approximate SFHA limit [end of caption]• 

Flood damage increases rapidly once the elevation of the flood extends above the lowest floor of a building, especially in areas subject to coastal waves. In a V Zone, Roof Leak Repair Cost a coastal flood with a wave crest 3 to 4 feet above the bottom of the floor beam (approximately 1 to 2 feet above the walking surface of the floor) will be sufficient to substantially damage or destroy most light-framed residential and commercial construction (see Figure 4).• 

There are design Roof Leak Repair Cost and construction practices that can eliminate or minimize damage to buildings when flood levels exceed the BFE. The most common approach is to add freeboard to the design (i.e., to elevate the building higher than required by the FIRM).There are other benefits of designing for flood levels above the BFE: reduced building damage and maintenance.

Longer building life; reduced flood insurance premiums; Roof Leak Repair Cost reduced displacement and dislocation of building occupants after floods (and need for temporary shelter and assistance); reduced job loss; and increased retention of tax base. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Flood Risk

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