Structural Drying >> Storm Damage Roof Leak

Hygrothermal building component simulation requires a complete set of storage and transport functions. Such functions are typically determined by the aid of material models defining a set of functions that are adjusted to basic material data. Basic material data consists of either single parameters or measured functional courses of, Storm Damage Roof Leak for example, water uptake or drying. 

For parameter adjustment during material modeling, functional courses are most reliable. For a simple comparison of material properties,though, single number material parameters are more appropriate.The drying behavior of building materials is rather complex, Storm Damage Roof Leak which is the reason why a single-number drying coefficient does not yet exist. 

Some first attempts to standardize drying data have been made. However, these did not yet result in a consistent drying coefficient definition.The paper briefly introduces the different dependencies of the drying process. Data from experimental Storm Damage Roof Leak and numerical investigations is provided and discussed. On this basis, a new drying coefficient for building materials is defined. 

This coefficient isultimately discussed with regard to its meaning as well as its additional information content compared to other moisture transportcoefficients. The moisture transport properties significantly influencethe application, durability, Storm Damage Roof Leak and particular structural behaviorof building materials. 

Investigations of such behavior areeither done experimentally or by numerical simulation (Pedersen 1989; Künzel 1994; Janssen et al. 2007; Nicolai et al.2010). The moisture transport behavior is important in bothcases and can be derived for the different moisture contentranges from vapor diffusion, water absorption, Storm Damage Roof Leak and drying experiments.

The water absorption experiment provides information about the Storm Damage Roof Leak material’s transport properties for liquid water. The measurement conditions comprise water contents close tosaturation. The vapor diffusion experiment provides informationabout the material’s moisture transport properties in the hygroscopic moisture range. 

It comprises mainly vapor transport.Measurements at higher relative humidities include unsaturated liquid transport as well. The drying experiment provides information about liquid Storm Damage Roof Leak and vapor transport properties. It comprises the whole range from saturated liquid to only vapor transport and, hence, marks the link between the two other experiments.

This is the reason why the drying experiment is considered to be very important for the hygric material characterization (Krus and Holm 1999; Storm Damage Roof Leak Scheffler 2008). It reveals moisturetransport information within the largest range of moisture stages. Drying is an integral transport experiment that does notrequire expensive equipment to be performed. 

However, thedrying is much more dependent on the boundary and transfer conditions than the other two experiments. Therefore, all ofthese conditions have to be known for a proper data analysis. At present, the drying experiment is not standardized, and Storm Damage Roof Leak a simple material parameter to be derived does not exist. 

Therefore, this paper first investigates the drying process andits governing influences and then reviews some first attemptsto derive a simple material coefficient. On that basis, Storm Damage Roof Leak theauthors propose a new drying coefficient for building materials and discuss its meaning and its correlation to the othertransport parameters.

Basics of the Drying Process In general, Storm Damage Roof Leak drying is a three-dimensional heat and moisture transport phenomenon that includes evaporation cooling,which leads to a temperature and also to a moisture profile.The drying behavior of porous materials depends on thefollowing: material properties (moisture storage and transport) 

Climatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) transfer conditions for heat Storm Damage Roof Leak and vapor (air velocity andsurface roughness [Worch 2004])The material properties influence how quickly moisturecan be transported inside the material. The combination ofclimatic and transfer condition.

The boundary conditions—defines the speed Storm Damage Roof Leak and quantity of moisture that can betransported to the surrounding atmosphere. Figure 1, left side,illustrates these influences. This also becomes visible in amaterial’s drying curve (Figure 1, right side). Two distinctphases, called first and second drying phase (Krischer andKast 1992), can be distinguished. 

The first drying phase is characterized by an almost linear weight loss in time. During this phase, Storm Damage Roof Leak the material transports moisture faster to the evaporation surface than what can evaporate. During the first drying phase, the drying is limited by the boundary conditions.In the second drying phase, this physical phenomenon reverses. 

The moisture transport becomes slower Storm Damage Roof Leak and the boundary conditions allow more moisture movement towardthe surrounding air than actually arrives at the surface. The process is slowed and a distinct moisture content profile develops inside the material. During the second drying phase, thedrying is limited by the material properties. 

When performing these drying experiments, this is theinteresting part of the results because it reflects the materialbehavior. Adjustment and approximation procedures, Storm Damage Roof Leak as introduced by Krus and Holm (1999), Scheffler (2008) and Scheffler and Plagge (2010) can interpret the physics of the seconddrying phase. 

For a more detailed analysis of the dryingprocess and how to measure and interpret such data, Storm Damage Roof Leak see Scheffler and Plagge (2005).Since the drying is influenced by many conditions, it isimportant to conduct drying experiments under standardizedconditions or measure all influencing parameters—i.e., relative humidity and temperature of the environment and surfacetemperature of the evaporation surface. 

Until now, a standardfor drying experiments does not exist. Moreover, it is verydifficult to maintain constant and reproducible conditions during the drying. Therefore, Storm Damage Roof Leak it is recommended that all conditions be measured Problems in Drying Coefficient Derivation

The different dependencies of the drying experiment ongeometrical, initial, and boundary conditions, as well as on thematerial properties, Storm Damage Roof Leak make the derivation of a simple singlevalue material parameter very difficult. Within the German national research project MASEA, aimed at developing amaterial database for old existing building materials (see also,BINE 2007), discussions on a drying coefficient were started. 

It quickly became clear that time Storm Damage Roof Leak and sample height play an important role and must be combined. Krus et al. (2007) published their first considerations and proposed to plot the duration of the first drying phase versus sample height. 

Based on a simulation study with constant climatic conditions, they had obtained a square root of sample height relationship. Similarly to the water absorption coefficient, Storm Damage Roof Leak the drying coefficient was proposed to be the slope of this curve in a square root ofsample height scale.

Types Of Perimeter Fencing

When officials recommend evacuation Coordinate your departure with people who will be traveling with you. Notify an out-of-area person of your plans.Secure your home.Put your disaster supplies kit in your vehicle. Double check evacuation routes and leave.Who Should Plan to Leave Early Residents of l  read more..

Tree Removal From Hurricane Damage

This office reported that its applicants had "passed every decision through layers of FEMA approvals" at the time the original disaster cleanup was under way, and it was only informed years later that certain vegetative debris removal was ineligible for reimbursement. Several applicants have encount  read more..

How To Repair Cracked Circuit Boards

The abrasive and mildly corrosive nature of ash can damage computer and electronic systems. When possible, the best damage-preventive strategy is to shut down all computer, electric motors, and electronic systems until the ash has been completely removed from the equipment and the surrounding area,   read more..

How To Refurbish An Apartment After Tenants Trash

When a landlord and tenant get along well, things are better all around. Dealing with unhappy tenants is alot of trouble for a landlord, and few tenants want the inconvenience and expense of moving simplybecause they cannot get along with their landlords.Yet, Tenant Move Out Cleanup How To Refurbish An Apartment After Tenants Trash landlords and tenants fre  read more..

Dry Out After A Flood

A building that has been damaged by rising water can bea dangerous place. This will help you know what to lookout for and how to protect yourself and Flood Damage Dry Out After A Flood your family. It willalso tell you what you need to know about cleaning upand making your home safe to live in again.

Watch Out for  read more..

Water Damage

Standing water is a breeding ground for a wide range of micro-organisms and insects, such as mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can spread diseases like West Nile Virus. Micro-organisms, including bacteria and mold, can become airborne and be inhaled. Where floodwater is highly infected, infectious diseas  read more..

Mold Remediation

So your tenants have moved out. So your tenants without giving you notice and may have moved out. Now you have the task of going in and Tenant Move Out Cleanup Mold Remediation cleaning up. There are so many scenarios on this it's unbelievable. Hopefully you had good tenants and they left the place in decent shape, however this  read more..

Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi

Desiccants are materials that attract and hold moisture, and desiccant air-conditioning systems provide a method of drying air before it enters a conditioned space. With the high levels of fresh air now required for building ventilation, Dehumidification Calculate Space In A Flooded Room For A Dehumidifi removing moisture has become increasingly impor  read more..

Clean Up After Fire Damage

During disasters, there are many community volunteers, who emerge with a lot of enthusiasm,some expertise, Fire Damage Clean Up After Fire Damage  and some tools appropriate to the fire tasks at hand but no connection to any organized planned response group. Unified Command's fire challenge is to marshal these spontan  read more..

Is Damage By A Squirrel Covered By Homeowners Ins

The progressive loss of Iowa's woodlands and farmlands to development is increasing the chance for conflicts between humans and wildlife. Social trends, such as increased urbanization, increased populations of certain wildlife species, and finite government resources have combined to provide the   read more..