Structural Drying >> Storm Damage Roof Leak

Hygrothermal building component simulation requires a complete set of storage and transport functions. Such functions are typically determined by the aid of material models defining a set of functions that are adjusted to basic material data. Basic material data consists of either single parameters or measured functional courses of, Storm Damage Roof Leak for example, water uptake or drying. 

For parameter adjustment during material modeling, functional courses are most reliable. For a simple comparison of material properties,though, single number material parameters are more appropriate.The drying behavior of building materials is rather complex, Storm Damage Roof Leak which is the reason why a single-number drying coefficient does not yet exist. 

Some first attempts to standardize drying data have been made. However, these did not yet result in a consistent drying coefficient definition.The paper briefly introduces the different dependencies of the drying process. Data from experimental Storm Damage Roof Leak and numerical investigations is provided and discussed. On this basis, a new drying coefficient for building materials is defined. 

This coefficient isultimately discussed with regard to its meaning as well as its additional information content compared to other moisture transportcoefficients. The moisture transport properties significantly influencethe application, durability, Storm Damage Roof Leak and particular structural behaviorof building materials. 

Investigations of such behavior areeither done experimentally or by numerical simulation (Pedersen 1989; Künzel 1994; Janssen et al. 2007; Nicolai et al.2010). The moisture transport behavior is important in bothcases and can be derived for the different moisture contentranges from vapor diffusion, water absorption, Storm Damage Roof Leak and drying experiments.

The water absorption experiment provides information about the Storm Damage Roof Leak material’s transport properties for liquid water. The measurement conditions comprise water contents close tosaturation. The vapor diffusion experiment provides informationabout the material’s moisture transport properties in the hygroscopic moisture range. 

It comprises mainly vapor transport.Measurements at higher relative humidities include unsaturated liquid transport as well. The drying experiment provides information about liquid Storm Damage Roof Leak and vapor transport properties. It comprises the whole range from saturated liquid to only vapor transport and, hence, marks the link between the two other experiments.

This is the reason why the drying experiment is considered to be very important for the hygric material characterization (Krus and Holm 1999; Storm Damage Roof Leak Scheffler 2008). It reveals moisturetransport information within the largest range of moisture stages. Drying is an integral transport experiment that does notrequire expensive equipment to be performed. 

However, thedrying is much more dependent on the boundary and transfer conditions than the other two experiments. Therefore, all ofthese conditions have to be known for a proper data analysis. At present, the drying experiment is not standardized, and Storm Damage Roof Leak a simple material parameter to be derived does not exist. 

Therefore, this paper first investigates the drying process andits governing influences and then reviews some first attemptsto derive a simple material coefficient. On that basis, Storm Damage Roof Leak theauthors propose a new drying coefficient for building materials and discuss its meaning and its correlation to the othertransport parameters.

Basics of the Drying Process In general, Storm Damage Roof Leak drying is a three-dimensional heat and moisture transport phenomenon that includes evaporation cooling,which leads to a temperature and also to a moisture profile.The drying behavior of porous materials depends on thefollowing: material properties (moisture storage and transport) 

Climatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) transfer conditions for heat Storm Damage Roof Leak and vapor (air velocity andsurface roughness [Worch 2004])The material properties influence how quickly moisturecan be transported inside the material. The combination ofclimatic and transfer condition.

The boundary conditions—defines the speed Storm Damage Roof Leak and quantity of moisture that can betransported to the surrounding atmosphere. Figure 1, left side,illustrates these influences. This also becomes visible in amaterial’s drying curve (Figure 1, right side). Two distinctphases, called first and second drying phase (Krischer andKast 1992), can be distinguished. 

The first drying phase is characterized by an almost linear weight loss in time. During this phase, Storm Damage Roof Leak the material transports moisture faster to the evaporation surface than what can evaporate. During the first drying phase, the drying is limited by the boundary conditions.In the second drying phase, this physical phenomenon reverses. 

The moisture transport becomes slower Storm Damage Roof Leak and the boundary conditions allow more moisture movement towardthe surrounding air than actually arrives at the surface. The process is slowed and a distinct moisture content profile develops inside the material. During the second drying phase, thedrying is limited by the material properties. 

When performing these drying experiments, this is theinteresting part of the results because it reflects the materialbehavior. Adjustment and approximation procedures, Storm Damage Roof Leak as introduced by Krus and Holm (1999), Scheffler (2008) and Scheffler and Plagge (2010) can interpret the physics of the seconddrying phase. 

For a more detailed analysis of the dryingprocess and how to measure and interpret such data, Storm Damage Roof Leak see Scheffler and Plagge (2005).Since the drying is influenced by many conditions, it isimportant to conduct drying experiments under standardizedconditions or measure all influencing parameters—i.e., relative humidity and temperature of the environment and surfacetemperature of the evaporation surface. 

Until now, a standardfor drying experiments does not exist. Moreover, it is verydifficult to maintain constant and reproducible conditions during the drying. Therefore, Storm Damage Roof Leak it is recommended that all conditions be measured Problems in Drying Coefficient Derivation

The different dependencies of the drying experiment ongeometrical, initial, and boundary conditions, as well as on thematerial properties, Storm Damage Roof Leak make the derivation of a simple singlevalue material parameter very difficult. Within the German national research project MASEA, aimed at developing amaterial database for old existing building materials (see also,BINE 2007), discussions on a drying coefficient were started. 

It quickly became clear that time Storm Damage Roof Leak and sample height play an important role and must be combined. Krus et al. (2007) published their first considerations and proposed to plot the duration of the first drying phase versus sample height. 

Based on a simulation study with constant climatic conditions, they had obtained a square root of sample height relationship. Similarly to the water absorption coefficient, Storm Damage Roof Leak the drying coefficient was proposed to be the slope of this curve in a square root ofsample height scale.

Hurricane Proof Your House

Double Entry Doors Double-wide garage doors Double-wide (two-car) garage doors can pose a problem during hurricanes because they are so large that they wobble as the high winds blow and can pull out of their tracks or collapse from Wind Damage Hurricane Proof Your House wind pressure. 

  read more..

How To Remove Soot Stains From Stucco

In a final report in the series of non-thermal damage experiments, SNL reports on previously unpublished results including tests of conformal coatings, digital throughput, memory chips, hard disk drives, and electrical properties of fire smoke [19].2.1.7.1 Conformal Coatings In order to gauge the ab  read more..

Water Extraction Equipment For Upholstery Cleaning

FEMA Grant Helps Restore New Orleans' Katrina-Damaged Archives Release date: FEBRUARY 3, 2012 Release Number:1603-963 NEW ORLEANS, La. 

The Federal Emergency Management Agency announced today approximately $1.7 million in public assistance funding to restore New Orle  read more..

How To Get Rid Of Water In My Basement

Flood Depth
The primary consideration in dry floodproofing, and the one that imposes the greatest limitations on the application of this method, is the effect of hydrostatic pressure. Because dry floodproofing prevents water from entering the house, Basement Drying How To Get Rid Of Water In My Basement the external hydrostatic   read more..

Grants For Asbestos Removal

Because asbestos was used so frequently and because of the dangers of asbestos it is possible to secure grants for Asbestos Abatement Grants For Asbestos Removal. Now the cannot be used in every case it only a select few will be eligible and the regulations will be different depending on which state you live in and which area of the   read more..

How To Dispose Of Lead Paint Chips

The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Control Division is responsible for developing and implementing lead certification and abatement regulations for child occupied facilities and target housing, as mandated by state statute (25-5-1101 C.R.S., et seq.). The statute  read more..

How To Board Up Windows In A Vacant House

All licensed contractors who desire to participate in the Emergency Board-Up eligibility list shall prepare and file an application with the Fire Marshal at any time during the month of May to be reviewed for inclusion in the following fiscal year (July through June). The application shall include,   read more..

Black Mold Cause Serious Health Issues

Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides immitis, a dimorphic fungus that grows as a mold in the soil. The mold forms arthroconidia within the hypha, a type of conidia formation known as enteroarthric development. C. immitis is the only species within the primary pathogenic fungi that has this t  read more..

How To Restore Flood Damaged Photos

The first formulation of standards of practice and professional relations by any group of art conservators was produced by the IIC-American Group (now AIC) Committee on Professional Standards and Procedures. Document restoration How To Restore Flood Damaged Photos

Formed at the second regular meeting of the IIC-AG, in  read more..

OSHA Asbestos Abatement

The occupational safety and health administration has regulations concerning the health and safety of everyone in the workplace. This federal agency regulates the standards for any industry that works with Asbestos Abatement OSHA Asbestos Abatement or that manufactures anything made of asbestos such as the shipping industry and s  read more..