Water Extraction >> Black Water Carpet Cleaning

Wetlands provide significant ecosystem services that include floodwater storage, water quality improvement, and wildlife habitat. Under U.S. Farm Bill programs, an array of defined conservation practices may be installed to reduce agricultural impacts on environmental quality, Black Water Carpet Cleaning with some practices aimed specifically at protecting or restoring the ecological functions ofwetlands. 

As part of the NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project, Wetlands National Component (CEAP–Wetlands), Black Water Carpet Cleaning regional studies are being conducted to assess the ecological benefits of such wetland practices on agricultural lands (see Duriancik et al. 2008). 

Although theSoutheastern U. S. is a region of diverse wetlands, a forthcoming CEAP–Wetlands review(De Steven & Lowrance, in press) found that information on the nature and Black Water Carpet Cleaning outcomes of wetland conservation practices is scarce to non-existent in the region. 

The specific practices of wetlandrestoration and creation were relatively infrequent and largely unstudied, Black Water Carpet Cleaning with little indication ofwhat wetland types were restored or how the practices were implemented. 

Wetland hydro geo morphic (HGM) types will differ in the potential ecosystem services they provide; thus,without knowledge of wetland type, Black Water Carpet Cleaning ability to assess gains in ecological services is hindered.

In the Southeast, approximately 60% of land cover is forested and agriculture comprisesonly about 20% of land use (USDA 2006), but both forestry and Black Water Carpet Cleaning agricultural activities have beensignificant regional causes of wetland degradation and loss (e.g. Hefner & Brown 1985, Hefneret al. 1994). 

There is a critical need to document the wetland types, landscape settings, and Black Water Carpet Cleaning success of wetland restoration practices in order to assess ecological benefits and improvepractice implementation. 

The regional review (De Steven and Lowrance, in press) indicated that reported wetland restoration/creation practices implemented under Farm Bill programs in theSoutheast were confined largely to four states (NC, SC, GA, MS), Black Water Carpet Cleaning with over 60% of practices implemented in South Carolina alone. 

The present study was designed to evaluate wetland restoration and Black Water Carpet Cleaning creation projects in three states (SC, GA, MS) spanning the Southern Coastal Plain. 

Questions to be addressed include: 1) what wetland types were restored, and by whatpractices and methods?, 2) were wetlands restored in original geomorphic settings, or Black Water Carpet Cleaning were a typical wetland classes created?, and 3) do restored sites show indicators of improved wetlandcondition? 

This progress report summarizes initial findings for wetland restoration projects inSouth Carolina. The NRCS National Conservation Planning Database was queried for records of the wetlandrestoration and Black Water Carpet Cleaning creation practices (#657 and #658, respectively) reported as implemented duringthe period of 2000–2008 on privately-owned Farm Bill program lands. 

For South Carolina therewere 158 practice records, Black Water Carpet Cleaning of which nearly all (95%) were wetland restoration (#657) and nearlyall (92%) had been applied under the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP). Conservation projectslinked to the records were identified, plus some additional WRP projects with missed records. 

A"project” represents a defined wetland or tract with coordinated planning that may involvemultiple landowners, contracts, or Black Water Carpet Cleaning data records. 

The end result was a South Carolina sample of approximately 76 wetland restoration projects distributed among 85 WRP contracts, Black Water Carpet Cleaning plus 9miscellaneous projects under other programs (Conservation Technical Assistance, ConservationReserve, and Wildlife Habitat Incentives Programs). 

The 85 contracts represent ca. 42% of allSouth Carolina WRP contracts completed or Black Water Carpet Cleaning in progress since the program’s inception (1995) tomid-2009. The smaller number of practice records for Georgia and Mississippi (approximately50) is not yet analyzed.

This report is a preliminary assessment of the South Carolina WRP projects, which representthe predominant and typical applications of the wetland restoration practice (#657). The WRP easements were enrolled during 1996–2004, Black Water Carpet Cleaning with project completion dates from 1998–2008.

Project locations span all Black Water Carpet Cleaning South Carolina physiographic sub-regions (Piedmont, Hilly CoastalPlain, Coastal Flats). 

Written conservation plans, site aerial photography, USGS topographicmaps, and NRCS soil survey maps were reviewed for each project to compile informationincluding project topographic setting, Black Water Carpet Cleaning land/habitat status prior to applying the wetland restoration practice, other conservation practices associated with the project plan, and the hydrogeomorphicclasses of the project wetlands. 

To date, evaluations have been completed for 67 projects, withthe others nearing completion. Findings should be regarded as tentative until data for all studyprojects have been compiled and Black Water Carpet Cleaning analyzed. Of the 76 WRP projects, over half were in the Hilly Coastal Plain (54%), followed by 34%in the Coastal Flats and 12% in the Piedmont. 

Most projects (93%) were in 30-year or permanenteasements, with only 7% in 10-year cost-share agreements. Prior land status and Black Water Carpet Cleaning wetland typesreflect both the general character of the Southeast as a largely forested region, and also adistinctive feature of South Carolina’s Wetland Reserve Program. 

By 2003, the SC NRCS StateOffice established a WRP special-projects initiative to enroll degraded sites with hydric and/or Black Water Carpet Cleaning "problem” soils (i.e., lacking some hydric indicators) that under undisturbed conditions would besubject to frequent flooding and would support hydrophytic vegetation. 

Typically, such areas areidentified as degraded floodplains along major rivers where natural water flows and Black Water Carpet Cleaning movements of aquatic biota have been blocked or disrupted.

Prior Land Status and Wetland Types Roughly 43% of projects either were ditched prior-converted wetlands used for agricultural cropping or grazing, or were ditched depressions and Black Water Carpet Cleaning Carolina bays that appeared more naturally vegetated, possibly having been abandoned from earlier agricultural use. 

The other 57% ofprojects were represented by natural bottomland forest sites, many of which had been disturbedby previous timber harvest activities. The forestry sites typically had degraded hydrologic functions and Black Water Carpet Cleaning altered vegetation owing to logging-road and culvert construction, clear-cutting orselective timber removal, soil rutting, and debris disposal. 

Many impacted bottomland sites werebeing used for hunting and wildlife management as well as for forestry. Reflecting the special-projects initiative, approximately 54% of degraded wetlands wereriverine, including narrow headwater floodplains on low-order streams, Black Water Carpet Cleaning wider mainstem riverfloodplains, and a few tidal rivers near the Atlantic Coast. 

Riverine wetlands in the Piedmontoften had been disturbed by adjacent cropping or pasturing, whereas elsewhere the impacts weremore likely to be from timber extraction and/or Black Water Carpet Cleaning stream channelization. Some tidal river sites hadremnant dikes associated with historical rice production. 

Depressional wetlands and large Carolina bays represented 29% of projects, and Black Water Carpet Cleaning the remaining 17% were wetlands on less well defined flats. Depressions and flats typically were degraded by ditching and/or tile drainage.

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