Water Extraction >> Carpet Cleaning After A Flood

Wet bottom sediment was extracted overnight within a Soxhlet apparatus. Two aliquots of the sample extract were quantitatively injected into a polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel permeation column (GPC) andeluted with dichloromethane to remove sulfur and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood partially isolate the target analytes. 

Eluent from the first aliquot wasanalyzed for PAHs and alkyl-PAHs by capillary-column gaschromatography (GC) with detection by full-scan mass spectrometry (MS) or by selected ion monitoring MS. Nineteenparent PAHs, 10 specific alkyl-PAHs, and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood the homologousseries of alkyl-PAHs for 2- to 5-ringed PAH were determined.

Total PAH refers to the summation used by MacDonald andothers (2000) for the probable effect concentration (PEC),an SQG, and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood hereinafter is designated as ΣPAHSQG. 

Eluentfrom the second GPC aliquot was split into two fractions bycombined alumina/silica adsorption chromatography followed by Florisil adsorption chromatography for further cleanupof the second fraction. Both fractions Carpet Cleaning After A Flood were analyzed by dualcapillary-column GC with electron capture detection for the determination of the organochlorine pesticides and PCBs.

PCBs were quantified as individual Aroclor (1016/1242, 1254,or 1260) equivalents and as 27 specific congeners.Quality assurance for organic-compound analyses by these methods was provided by analyzing an environmental duplicate sample split at the laboratory, Carpet Cleaning After A Flood laboratory reagent blanks.

Spiked reagent samples with each set of 12 environmental samples, and by monitoring recovery of surrogatecompounds in all samples. Although the methods were thesame for street mud, suspended sediment, and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood bottom sediment, sample mass was much smaller for suspended-sediment samples, thus affecting laboratory reporting levels and precision and limiting the number of duplicates analyzed.

Van Metre and others (2004) reported that the median relativepercent difference (RPD) using these methods for sedimentcore samples for chlorinated hydrocarbons was 11.8 percentfor 41 lab duplicate samples and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood for PAHs was 11.9 percentfor 40 lab duplicate samples.

Urban Waste Indicator CompoundsThe UWI analytical method measures a diverse suiteof organic compounds that reflects urban non-point sourcesand wastewater inputs to surface waters (Kolpin and others,2002); Carpet Cleaning After A Flood methods for analysis of UWI compounds in sedimentwere developed only recently (Burkhardt, ReVello, and others,2005; Burkhardt, Zaugg, and others, 2006). 

The compoundsmeasured by the UWI method fall into four groups: PAHs andrelated compounds, fecal and sewage indicator compounds,industrial chemicals, and pesticides and other householdchemicals. Wet bottom sediment was extracted twice, Carpet Cleaning After A Flood usingisopropanol/water mixtures on a commercially available accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) system. 

These extracts werethen diluted and method compounds were extracted from thebuffer solution using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges.A mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether was used to elutethe method compounds from the SPE cartridge and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood passed through a 1-gram Florisil SPE column. These SPE extractswere reduced in volume and fortified with internal injection standards. 

The sample extracts were analyzed for 61 compounds by capillary-column GC with detection by full-scan MS.The UWI compounds were reported as individual compounds except for the nonylphenols and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood octylphenols,which were reported as estimated concentrations because thereference standards are from technical mixtures. 

The ASE is amore vigorous extraction technique than the dichloromethane Soxhlet extraction used for the chlorinated hydrocarbons andPAHs. As a result, Carpet Cleaning After A Flood analytical results from the two methods arenot comparable. 

Quality assurance was provided by analyzing an environmental duplicate sample split at the laboratory,laboratory reagent blanks, and spiked reagent samples, and bymonitoring recovery of surrogate compounds in all samples.Burkhardt, ReVello, and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood others (2005) reported that themedian precision using this method for PAHs on a standardreference material was 102 ±11.1 percent. 

Median recovery forspiked sand samples included with environmental samples forall UWI compounds was 76 percent for this study. Althoughthe methods were the same for the street-mud, Carpet Cleaning After A Flood suspended sediment, and bottom-sediment samples, small sample massfor suspended-sediment samples affected laboratory reporting levels and precision and limited the number of duplicatesanalyzed. 

Five environmental duplicate samples analyzed forUWI compounds for this study had a median RPD of 22 percent for the 19 analyte pairings detected. An acceptable rangeof RPDs for this Carpet Cleaning After A Flood method has not been established because thisis a recently developed analytical method.

Current-Use PesticidesSediment samples were extracted with 25-percent acetonein dichloromethane in an ASE system at 100 °C under pressurized conditions (10,342 kilopascals). Resultant extracts weredried with sodium sulfate, reduced in volume, and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood exchangedto ethyl acetate using Kuderna-Danish distillation and nitrogengas evaporation. 

The extract was introduced to a graphitizedcarbon SPE column and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood eluted with a 50-percent dichloromethane in ethyl acetate solution. The eluent was reduced andthe analytes were further isolated from elemental sulfur byGPC using ethyl acetate mobile phase. 

The GPC fraction wasreduced and a procedural internal standard solution of perdeuterated PAHs was added to the extract before final solventreduction and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood exchange to toluene. 

Sixty-three analytes in theextract were determined by GC/MS operated in the selectedion monitoring mode using procedures described in Zaugg andothers (1995), Sandstrom and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood others (2001), and Madsen andothers (2003); 62 of the analytes were determined by thosefiltered-water methods.

Quality assurance for current-use pesticide analyses by these methods was provided by analyzing an environmental duplicate sample split at the laboratory, Carpet Cleaning After A Flood laboratory reagentblanks, and spiked reagent samples with each set of 3 to 20 environmental samples, and by monitoring recovery of surrogate compounds in all samples. 

Thirty of the 63 method analytes exhibited acceptable performance (between 60 and 120percent median recovery and Carpet Cleaning After A Flood no more than 25 percent relative standard deviation) in 21 reagent spikes. Concentrations ofthe 33 other analytes, if detected, are reported as estimatedbecause of greater bias or variability or recognized GC thermalinstability (Foreman and others, 2005). 

Median recovery was81 percent for all analytes in the five reagent spikes analyzedwith environmental samples for this study. Four environmental duplicate samples analyzed for current-use pesticides for this Carpet Cleaning After A Flood study had a median RPD of 9 percent for the six analyte pairings detected.

Electrical Systems In Flood damaged Buildings

Question: Do electrical systems and equipment submerged through flooding have to be replaced? Answer: Floodwaters are not just water; the water may also be contaminated with chemicals, sewage, oil and other debris. When the floodwater is salt water, its corrosive effects are particularly damaging. A  read more..

Water Damage Electronic Restoration Classes

When candidate plug or receptacle D-subminiature, microminiature or printed circuit connectors are submitted for qualification, completely assembled mated pairs shall be used. Connectors shall have a full complement of contacts. For Level 1 qualification, three mated pairs shall be prepared. For Lev  read more..

Remove Lead Paint From Furniture

Disposal of Demolition Wastes Contaminated with Lead or Other Heavy Metals 8/2008 This fact sheet contains guidance for households, property owners, businesses and contractors who must dispose of the following types of waste: Paint Residue - Paint chips, paint scrapings and Lead Paint Removal Remove Lead Paint From Furniture paint-cont  read more..

Roof Leak Diverter

Focus on high value items that were not water impacted and items that have special significance. If an entire item cannot be saved, consider parts that could be saved. For example, if a family heirloom such as an antique chest cannot be saved, consider saving the non-porous handles Structural Drying Roof Leak Diverter or  read more..

Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor

Material Properties Materials are either amorphous or crystalline. The difference between these two descriptions depends on the positions of the atoms in them. The atoms in amorphous materials are randomly arranged with no long range order Asbestos Abatement Can A Private Homeowner Dispose Of Asbestos Floor. An example of an amorphous material is glass.  read more..

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Flood Defenses

If the code permits, it is probably best to throw away switches and outlets that were flooded and replace them with new ones. (See Step 5).

3.Check your water system for leaks from pipes that may have moved. (See Step 5). Even if your water supply is not safe to drink, it  read more..

Risk Assessment Of Asbestos Removal In Pennsylvani

This is a non-mandatory appendix to the asbestos standards for construction and for shipyards. It describes criteria and procedures for erecting and using negative pressure enclosures for Class I Asbestos Work, when NPEs are used as an allowable Asbestos Abatement Risk Assessment Of Asbestos Removal In Pennsylvani  control method to comply with paragrap  read more..

What Are The Dangers Of Sewage Backups

Use of root remover products - A number of root remover products are available commercially. Be sure to follow all of the manufacturer's instructions. Although these products may not completely eliminate the growth, they may increase the interval between Sewage Cleanup What Are The Dangers Of Sewage Backups needed rodding. 3. Sewer pipe   read more..

Tree Removal

Once the envelope of the structure has been penetrated during loss of windows or doors, or because of roof damage, wind force on interior surfaces and structures becomes an issue. Openings may cause pressurization or depressurization of a Wind Damage Tree Removal structure. Pressurization drives wall boards and sheathi  read more..

Earthquake Damage

This article is on the subject of Smoke Damage Earthquake Damage from an investigation on the education of dangerous defense techniques for water restoration companies. One important factor is to think about earthquake and earthquake caused dangers like fire and smoke. This article is concentrated on an earthquake and  read more..