Water Extraction >> Cold Water Extration

Increase staff exposure to scientific literature and news reports with the idea of remaining current on issues related to emerging contaminants (for example, human toxicity, endocrine disruption, interaction with engineered nano particles, and so forth), their movement in the environment, and Cold Water Extration their relative importance to society. 

Pursue additional studies on emerging contaminantswith municipalities, water suppliers, and/or Cold Water Extration Statehealth agencies so that more can be learned about thetypes, amounts, pathways, and distribution of emergingcontaminants in the State's waters. Pursue and evaluate new technologies for measuringemerging-contaminant concentrations and/or theireffects on aquatic populations. 

Build technical associations with regulatory-agencyand water-resource program managers, USGS and Cold Water Extration other government-agency researchers, and researchgroups at Ohio institutions of higher learning involvedin studies of contaminant transport and effects.

Focus Area 2: Effects of Climate Change and Water Use on Water Availability, Water Quality,and Stream Biota Background Water is a vital resource whose availability for use byhuman and Cold Water Extration aquatic populations is a function of both its quantity and its quality. 

Human activities can affect water availability through a variety of ways including contamination ofsurface-water and/or Cold Water Extration groundwater sources, excessive withdrawals, and climate change induced by extensive deforestation and/or excessive production of greenhouse gases. 

More information is needed on the factors potentially affecting water availability and Cold Water Extration quality and the attendant implications forhuman and aquatic uses.Goals Develop or improve our ability to assess and/or modelthe effects of various amounts of water use and/or climate change on the quantity and/or quality of surfacewater and groundwater resources. 

Develop an improved understanding of the ecological implications of changes in the timing, variability,and/or Cold Water Extration total amount of water available in streams andaquifers. staff exposure to scientific literature and newsreports related to current theories about climate change and its potential impacts on hydrologic systems. 

Improve existing methods or Cold Water Extration develop new methods totrack and utilize information on water uses in order tobetter understand water-use impacts on surface-waterand/or groundwater systems. Improve our understanding of instream flows requiredto support healthy aquatic biota in Ohio streams. 

Improve our ability to model hydrologic and Cold Water Extration waterquality processes in a fashion that supports evaluation ofalternative water-use and/or climate-change scenarios. Pursue modeling studies aimed at evaluating the potential impacts of expected water-use or climate-change scenarios. 

Develop expertise with the coupled Groundwater and Cold Water Extration Surface-water FLOW (GSFLOW) model.Focus Area 3: Identification, Tracking, Quantification, and Prediction of the Occurrenceof Pathogens and Micro biological Indicators inEnvironmental and Treated Waters Background Pathogens enter our waters in runoff and/or dischargescontaining untreated or partially treated wastes or wastewaters. 

Health risks to humans and aquatic populations can resultfrom ingestion of, or Cold Water Extration contact with, fecally contaminated water.Methodologies and tools are needed to rapidly identify, track,quantify, and/or predict the occurrence of pathogens in water sothat we can minimize the risk of exposure to pathogens and canidentify and remediate important fecal contaminant sources.

Goals Continue to advance our ability to identify, enumerate, and Cold Water Extration track bacterial indicators and pathogens in waterby developing and applying new and improved microbiological methods such as quantitative polymerasechain reaction (qPCR) and immunomagnetic separation (IMS)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as well asuse of host-specific DNA markers. 

Continue to explore and improve techniques for accurately predicting when coastal and Cold Water Extration inland recreationalwaters are likely to have bacterial concentrations thatexceed recreational water-quality standards. Improve and test techniques and capabilities withrespect to identification and enumeration of bacterial indicators and pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. 

Continue to refine and improve rapid analytical methods, such as IMS/ATP and qPCR. Continue to pursue and refine methods for identifying and enumerating sources of fecal contaminationin lakes, streams, and Cold Water Extration aquifers by applying the useof host-specific markers and other source-trackingtechniques. 

Continue to evaluate and refine predictive models forestimating bacteria concentrations in rivers and Cold Water Extration atbeaches and pursue new and better ways to disseminate model results (for example, by using the Internet,social-networking software, text messaging, and soforth). 

Build technical associations with regulatory-agencyand water-resource program managers, USGS andother government-agency researchers, and Cold Water Extration researchgroups at national and international institutions ofhigher learning involved in relevant microbiologicalstudies.

Focus Area 4: Effects of AnthropogenicActivities on the Physical, Biological, and/orWater-Quality Characteristics of Streams and/or Cold Water Extration Groundwater SystemsBackgroundOf all of the species on Earth, humans are unique in thatthey extensively modify their environment to suit their needs.

Practices such as agriculture, mining, and development candramatically change the natural landscape, which, in turn, cansignificantly affect patterns, quantities, and Cold Water Extration quality of runoff.In some cases, modifications are made directly to stream channels to create instream storage.

Expedite the removal of floodwaters, minimize overbank flooding, or to stabilize and/or remediate channels that are perceived to be unstable or subjectto excessive erosion. In other cases, engineering solutions areemployed outside of the stream channel to control runoff and/or Cold Water Extration improve its quality. 

In many cases, the short- and long-termconsequences and efficacy of those modifications are eitherunknown or poorly understood.Goals Improve our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic activities on the physical, biological, and/or Cold Water Extration water-quality characteristics of streams and/or groundwater systems and expand our ability to model.

Predict the physical, biological, and/or water-qualityimpact of existing or proposed activities or remediationefforts.Strategies Develop increased expertise and use of geophysicaland geomorphological techniques. Develop increased expertise and use of tracer technologies for both surface-water and Cold Water Extration groundwater systems. 

Develop methods suitable for assessing the potential impacts of dam construction, dam removal, and Cold Water Extration stormwater best-management practices on streams andaquatic biota. Develop increased expertise in eutrophication processes and algal population dynamics. Expand surface-water, groundwater, and water-qualitymodeling capabilities. 

In particular, increase expertisein the use of HSPF for surface-water and water-qualitymodeling, and become familiar with the sedimenttransport and Cold Water Extration moveable-bed modeling capabilities ofHEC-RAS; optimization modeling with MODFLOW;groundwater/surface-water modeling with GSFLOW;and solute-transport modeling with HST3D andSUTRA.

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