Water Extraction >> Hot Water Extration From Carpet

Benchmark locations were integrated with gener­alized maps of soils and geology covering parts ofOrleans Parish, which lies at the center of the NewOrleans MSA. It is important to note that the soil andgeology data sets were digitized from small-scale,paper, photocopied maps to test the initial concepts of using Hot Water Extration From Carpet GIS to support development of a subsidence model. 

The source of thegeology map is "Geology of Greater New Orleans—ItsRelationship to Land Subsidence and Flooding” bySnowden and others (1980), and Hot Water Extration From Carpet the source of the soilsmap is the "Soil Survey of Orleans Parish, Louisiana”by the Soil Conservation Service (Trahan, 1989).

Figure 1 shows subsidence rates for 165 bench­marks that were consistently surveyed during the periodfrom 1951 to 1995. Table 1 shows the number of bench­marks surveyed, Hot Water Extration From Carpet mean annual subsidence rate, andstandard deviation for soils and geologic units for eachof the four epochs identified above. 

The average rateof subsidence among soil types was between 4.0 and6.0 mm/yr for all but the Aquents soil classification, Hot Water Extration From Carpet which makes up about 13 percent of the land area in theParish (Trahan, 1989). There appears to be a noticeabledecrease through time in the mean subsidence rate forthe Clovelly-Lafitte-Gentilly soil classification as com­pared to the others. 

Also, the overall mean subsidencerate for all soil types increases from the 1951–64 epochto the 1964–85 and 1985–91 epochs, and Hot Water Extration From Carpet then apparentrebound is seen during the 1991–95 epoch. Precipitationwas very heavy in the New Orleans region during 1991,which may be related to the apparent high rates ofsubsidence during 1985–91. 

Additional correlationsmay exist between land subsidence and other, Hot Water Extration From Carpet moredetailed and accurate soil and geology data sets, as wellas other environmental factors that may have an effecton subsidence. 

These other environmental factorsinclude drainage infrastructure, Hot Water Extration From Carpet levee locations, drain­age pumping-station operations, well locations andwithdrawals, ground-water recharge, application offill and overburden, land use, the history of humansettlement and urban development, and the bulk anddensity of buildings.

The 1951–95 altitude data also showed someinteresting differences among survey epochs andgeologic units (table 1). Mean annual subsidence in levee deposits, alluvial soils, artificial fill, and Hot Water Extration From Carpet lakefringe deposits ranged from 4.6 to 9.1 mm/yr. 

It shouldbe noted that one recent analysis of NGS Gulf Coastelevation data by Louisiana State University and Hot Water Extration From Carpet NGS(Roy Dokka, Louisiana State University, oral commun.,2003) suggests that the absolute subsidence rates for theNew Orleans region could be about 5 mm/yr or higher,but the relative differences would be the same. 

Relativedifferences in subsidence rates among the four surveyepochs might be explained by a more thorough exami­nation of rainfall data, Hot Water Extration From Carpet ground-water extraction andrecharge, land-use change, and other factors mentioned previously.

Global sea level has risen about 120 m as a resultof melting of large ice sheets since the last Hot Water Extration From Carpet glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago (Fairbanks, 1989). The most rapid rise occurred during the late and post­glacial periods followed by a period of relatively stablesea level during the past 6,000 years (Mimura andHarasawa, 2000). 

During the past 3,000 years, Hot Water Extration From Carpet sea levelrose at an average rate of about 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr, but bythe end of the 20th century the rate had increased toapproximately 1.0 to 2.0 mm/yr or 100 to 200 mm percentury (Gornitz, 1995; Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change, 1996). 

The Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change (2001) projects a two- to four-fold acceleration of sea-level rise over the next 100 years, Hot Water Extration From Carpet with a central value of 480 mm.

The rate of land subsidence in the New Orleansregion (average 5 mm/yr) and Hot Water Extration From Carpet the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change (2001) mid-range estimate ofsea-level rise (480 mm) suggests a net 1.0-m decline inelevation during the next 100 years relative to presentmean sea level (fig. 2). 

A storm surge from a Category3 hurricane (estimated at 3 to 4 m without waves)(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,2002) at the end of this century, Hot Water Extration From Carpet combined with meanglobal sea-level rise and land subsidence, would placestorm surge at 4 to 5 m above the city’s present altitude.The effect of such a storm on flooding in the NewOrleans 

MSA will depend upon the height and integrityof the regional levees and Hot Water Extration From Carpet other flood-protectionprojects at that time.An additional factor to be considered when eval­uating the future vulnerability of New Orleans to inun­dation is the current altitude of the land surface. Muchof the heavily populated area in Orleans and St. BernardParishes lies below mean sea level. 

At the intersectionof Morrison Road and Blueridge Court (located in lakefringe deposits of eastern Orleans Parish), for example,which is presently about 2.6 m below local mean sealevel, the cumulative effects of land subsidence, sealevel rise, and Hot Water Extration From Carpet storm surge from a Category 3 hurricaneat the end of this century place storm surge 6 to 7 mabove the land surface (fig. 2). 

Such a storm wouldexceed the design capacity of the existing floodprotection levees. The storm surge of a Category 5 hur­ricane, generally greater than 5 m (National Oceanic and Hot Water Extration From Carpet Atmospheric Administration, 2002), would posemore serious flooding danger. 

Hurricane Camille, Hot Water Extration From Carpet a Cat­egory 5 hurricane that made landfall in Mississippi in1969, increased water levels in coastal Mississippi by asmuch as 7 m (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1970).

Landfall of a Category 5 hurricane in New Orleanswould place the Morrison Road/Blueridge Court inter­section at least 9 m below storm-surge level today and,based on the same sea-level rise and land-subsidencetrends discussed above, at 10.5 m or Hot Water Extration From Carpet more below stormsurge level by the end of the 21st century.

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