Water Extraction >> How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet

Samples of street mud, suspended and bottom sediment in canals discharging to Lake Ponchartrain, and suspended and bottom sediment in the lake were collected and analyzedfor chemical constituents to help evaluate the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana. 

The approach used for sampling andanalysis of chemical data for the study is presented herein. Radionuclides, major and trace elements, and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet numerous organic compounds in sediment were analyzed. 

The organiccompounds include organochlorine pesticides, How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet poly chlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, urban waste indicator compounds, and current-use pesticides. 

Methods forthe analysis of urban waste indicator compounds and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet currentuse pesticides in sediment were developed only recently. rricane Katrina made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast near Buras, La. (about 75 kilometers southeast ofNew Orleans, La. [fig. 1]), early Monday, August 29, 2005.

Sustained winds during landfall were estimated at 204 kilometers per hour, making the How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet storm a strong Category 3hurricane. The tidal surge at New Orleans was 3 to 3.5 meters(Graumann and others, 2005). 

The impact of HurricaneKatrina on New Orleans was exacerbated by the city’s locationon drained wetlands in the Mississippi Delta and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet by decades ofsubsidence. Levees protect the city to the north and south, andcanals, aided by large pumping stations, help drain stormwaterfrom the city. 

The tidal surge from Hurricane Katrina causedthe failure of several levees along the canals, and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet flood water covered about 75 percent of the city with a maximum volumeof floodwater equivalent to about 7 percent of the volume ofLake Pontchartrain (U.S. Geological Survey, 2005). 

Water depths in some neighborhoods were as much as 3.5 meters,and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet sediment accompanying the floodwater left extensive muddeposits in some parts of the city. Sediment-laden floodwaterwas pumped out of the city, mostly into Lake Pontchartrain,during the weeks following Hurricane Katrina.

On September 24, 2005, rain and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet a tidal surge from Hurricane Rita reopened a levee breach on the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (commonly known as the Industrial Canal), and parts of the city reflooded. Much of this additional floodwaterwas pumped out during the following week. 

Potential contamination associated with the inundation of numerous urbancontaminant sources (for example, sewers, sewage-treatment facilities, gasoline stations, automobiles, industrial facilities,commercial buildings, and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet houses), as well as inundation of historically contaminated soils.

Raised concerns for potential effects on human health in NewOrleans and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet adverse effects on Lake Pontchartrain from floodwater pumped into the lake.Lake Pontchartrain is a large, shallow estuary with asurface area of 1,630 square kilometers and an average depth of about 4 meters. 

It is connected to the Gulf of Mexico by open channels on the southeast side, and the water is brackish. Wind, waves, and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet tidal fluctuations can resuspend bottom sediment; subsequent sediment redistribution largely iscontrolled by wind strength and direction (Signell and others,2002). 

Along the south side of the lake, adjacent to NewOrleans, sediment transport predominantly is parallel to shoreand often to the west, How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet as shown by the plume discharging fromthe Jahncke Canal (fig. 1) on September 13, 2005. 

Becausewater depths are shallow and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet mixing of relatively fresh canalwater and brackish lake water is infrequent (Penland and others, 2002), fine-grained sediment discharged from the canalscould be distributed widely in the lake. Material remaining insuspension ultimately discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. 

This report documents sampling and analytical methodsused in the study and measured concentrations of radionuclides, major and trace elements, and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet numerous organiccompounds in sediment from New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain. 

Samples of street mud, suspended and bottomsediment in canals discharging to the lake, and suspended andbottom sediment in the lake were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet analyzed for numerous chemical constituents. Concentrations of selected chemical constituentsare compared to sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs). 

Interpretations of data listed in this report are presented in Van Metreand others (2006).ApproachThe sampling design was based on models of LakePontchartain sediment transport and deposition (Signell andothers, 2002), locations of major canals, How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet locations of pumping stations, locations of levee breaches.

Observations and satellite imagery of sediment plumes in the lake caused bycanal discharge. Types of sampling sites were designed and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet locations selected (fig. 1; table 1, at end of report) to characterize the sources (street mud—four sites); transport (suspended sediment—four sites on canals, one site in the lake,and one site in a flooded neighborhood).

Fate (bottomsediment—two sites on canals and 27 sites in the lake) of sediment-associated contaminants pumped with floodwater from How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet the city. Site selection focused on three canals that discharged large amounts of floodwater to the lake (fig. 1, zones E, G,and J). 

Bottom sediment samples also were collected offshorefrom other canals, near the middle of the lake (MID), and atthe outlet to the Gulf of Mexico (RGO and MNT). All sampleswere collected between September 20 and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet October 21, 2005,after Hurricane Katrina (August 29, 2005) and before and afterHurricane Rita (September 24, 2005).

Sampling MethodsStreet-mud samples were collected from four sites (fig. 1;table 1). Sample NO1 (zone E) was a composite of two 125-milliliter grab samples collected 1 meter apart; How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet the three othersamples were composites of nine grab samples collected fromareas of about 100 square meters.

Suspended-sediment samples (fig. 1; table 1) were collected from four canals, from offshore of the mouth of one canal and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet from a flooded street in the lower Ninth Ward. Thesamples were obtained by using a peristaltic pump to transferwater from about 0.3 meter below the water surface into precleaned polycarbonate containers. 

The suspended-sediment samples from the mouth of the Metairie Outfall Canal (commonly known as the 17th Street Canal) collected on September 20, 2005 (E1 and E2), How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet were from a layer of less saline, lowdissolved oxygen (about 1.0 milligram per liter) water that wasassumed to be dominated by canal discharge. 

Sample volumesranged from 50 to 140 liters. Sediment for How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet elemental analysiswas isolated by filtration using 0.45-micrometer Teflon filtersheld in a 140-millimeter diameter acrylic filter holder (Mahlerand Van Metre, 2003) or, in two cases, by flow-through centrifugation (Horowitz and others, 2001). 

Sediment fororganic-compound analyses was isolated by filtration using 0.45-micrometer Teflon filters held in a 293-millimeter How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet diameter stainless-steel filter holder (Mahler and Van Metre,2003).

Bottom-sediment samples (fig. 1; table 1) were collectedat 19 sites using a 14- by 14-centimeter, 20-centimeter-tallstainless-steel box corer with a polycarbonate liner and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet at 10sites using a stainless-steel Ekman grab sampler. The surfacelayer (1 to 2 centimeters) was sliced off the top of the boxcores using a stainless-steel plate or Teflon-coated spatula.

Sediment was transferred to either a polycarbonate jar (inorganic analyses) or baked glass jar (organic analyses). At sitesE4 and H2, deeper sediment was obtained from box cores byvertically extruding the core and slicing intervals with a stainless-steel plate; selected samples were analyzed for radionuclides and How To Clean Water Damaged Carpet major and trace elements.

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