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Restoration Practices WRP projects are aimed at restoring or enhancing wetland functions, but also reflect a programmatic emphasis on wildlife benefits and the landowners' interests. Nearly 60% of project files indicated an explicit or implicit goal of managing the restored wetlands as waterfowl habitat; Water Carpet In A Basement it is likely that the actual percentage is higher. 

Three projects were of conservation interest because of association with endangered, threatened Water Carpet In A Basement or sensitive wildlife species (woodstork, bald eagle).The wetland restoration practice (#657) served two purposes. It was used to report totalproject area enrolled in the WRP easement, including allowable area for upland buffer habitat. 

It was also used for specific hydrology restoration techniques, Water Carpet In A Basement principally installing ditch plugs orremoving tile drains. Other restoration practices commonly used with the wetland restoration practice are summarized in Table 1.Table 

1. Principal NRCS conservation practices on WRP wetland restoration projectsin South Carolina.Practices (NRCS practice number)% of Water Carpet In A Basement projects usingthe practices Wetland wildlife habitat management (644) 84Water-control structure (587) 61Earthen dike (356) 60Upland wildlife habitat management (645) 57

Use exclusion/access control (472) 52Ditch plug or drain tile removal (657) 30Microtopography enhancement (see text) 28Road/dike breach, rock-fill Water Carpet In A Basement or stream crossing (see text) 27Tree/shrub planting (612) 25Shallow-water management for wildlife (646) 12 based on 67 projects with completed assessmentsRestoration methods are adapted to wetland type and setting. 

On mainstem river floodplainsites (30% of projects), WRP easements must be permanent, and restoration is directed atrecovering hydrologic functions and biotic connectivity across the floodplain and to the river. This is done by breaching roads Water Carpet In A Basement or dikes and by installing rock-fill road crossings or stream crossing structures to allow freer water flows and passage of aquatic species.

Various NRCS practices (#500obstruction removal, #561heavy-use area protection, #728 stream crossing,#395 stream habitat improvement, #396fish passage) may be used to report these actions.Rarely, Water Carpet In A Basement a small waterfowl pond with a dike and water-control structure may be maintained on a floodplain, but typically this is remnant from earlier land use. 

Restoring the floodplain forest isaccomplished by natural regeneration.A somewhat different suite of practices is used for headwater-river, depressional, Water Carpet In A Basement and wetflat restorations. Ditching and drainage are blocked, usually with a water-control structure and anassociated small earthen dike (ca. 70% of sites). 

This allows for maintaining a base hydrology Water Carpet In A Basement but also for water-level manipulation to support habitat management for waterfowl or otherwaterbirds (practices #644, 646). Only 12% of wetlands were restored by plugging ditches orremoving tile drains alone (without added water-control). 

In addition to blocking prior drainage,approximately 40% of projects involved constructing larger impoundments with long earthendikes; this was a common practice along low-order rivers in the Piedmont.Enhancement of small-scale topography by creating swales, ridges, Water Carpet In A Basement or potholes withinrestored wetlands was done on about 28% of all projects.

These techniques were reported eitheras wetland enhancement (practice #659) or under other practices (#657, 644, 646). Passiverevegetation is the usual method for restoring wetland vegetation; Water Carpet In A Basement although 25% of all projectsinvolved tree planting (practice #612), most of these (16%) were for planting adjacent uplands orwetland borders rather than the wetland interior. 

About half of all projects included the "use exclusion” practice, Water Carpet In A Basement which specifies preventing livestock access and prohibits high-impactvehicular access such as all-terrain vehicles.Project area also varied with wetland type and setting. 

Average easement size for main stem river floodplain sites was nearly 800 acres (range 652700), Water Carpet In A Basement whereas the average size of otherproject types was about 140 acres (range 51100). WRP projects can include some upland area adjacent to the restored wetlands. 

Excluding large-river floodplains with complex topography,about 60% of restored wetlands had minimal adjacent upland buffer within the WRP easement, Water Carpet In A Basement although buffer habitat may occur adjacent to the easement boundaries. 

When upland area is present, the upland habitat management practice (#645) may be applied on small areas; this typically consists of planted food plots for wildlife.Ongoing Work Ecological monitoring can Water Carpet In A Basement determine whether restoration has achieved successful outcomes.

In 2010, a selected subsample of the South Carolina projects will be Water Carpet In A Basement evaluated in the field forwetland condition in terms of vegetation composition and hydrologic status. Further work willcomplete the project analyses for wetland restorations in the Georgia and Mississippi CoastalPlain and will evaluate field conditions in those restored sites as well. 

All finding will be summarized into a comprehensive assessment of the practices Water Carpet In A Basement and ecological implications of restoration projects across the region. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

I thank State Conservationist Niles Glasgow Water Carpet In A Basement and staff of the South Carolina NRCS State Office, especially WRP Coordinator Glenn Sandifer, for exceptional assistance andcooperation with the study. Thanks also to CEAPWetlands Science Coordinator Diane Eckles for criticalproject support.

LITERATURE CITEDDe Steven, D. & R. Lowrance 20__. Agricultural conservation practices and Water Carpet In A Basement wetland ecosystem servicesin a wetland-rich landscape: the PiedmontCoastal Plain region. Ecological Applications Special Issue(in press).Duriancik, L.F., D. Bucks, J.P. Dobrowolski, T. Drewes, S.D. Eckles, L. Jolley, R.L. Kellogg, D. Lund,J.R. Makuch

M.P. O'Neill, C.A. Rewa, M.R. Walbridge, R. Parry, and M.A. Weltz. 2008. The first five years of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation63(6):185A-197A.Hefner, J. M., and J. D. Brown. 1985. Wetland trends Water Carpet In A Basement in the southeastern United States. Wetlands 4:1-11.Hefner, J. M., B. O. Wilen, T. E. Dahl, and W. E. Frayer. 

Southeast wetlands: status and trends,mid-1970s to mid-1980s. U. S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia.USDA [U.S. Department of Agriculture]. 2006. Agricultural Statistics. U.S. Department of Agriculture,National Agricultural Statistics Service, Water Carpet In A Basement Washington, D.C., USA.

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