Water Extraction >> Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks

In addition to the decline in land-surface altitude,the loss of marshes and barrier islands that dampen storm surge and waves during hurricanes increases the risks of flood disaster in New Orleans Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and vicinity.

Since 1940, approximately 1 million acres of coastal wetlands have been converted to open water in southern Louisiana as a result of natural Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and human-induced environmental change (Burkett and others, 2001). 

Theextensive loss of coastal marshes and bald cypress for­ests that once flanked the hurricane-protection levees of St. Bernard and Plaquemines Parishes has increased the Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks threat of storm-surge flooding for the 94,000 residentsin the southern part of the New Orleans MSA. 

Severalbarrier island and wetland restoration projects areplanned by the State of Louisiana, local governments, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and Federal agencies. ADAPTATIONS THAT MINIMIZE FLOODING 

Most of the New Orleans MSA is protected from flooding by levees constructed since 1879 by local sponsors Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under five different Congressional authorizations. Leveedesign heights range from about 4.5 to 6 m above meansea level. 

The levees along the Lake Pontchartrain shoreline are designed at a height that exceeds the surge Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and waves of a Category 3 hurricane. The levee design criteria assume no increase in mean sea level and nosubsidence (Alfred C. Naomi, U.S. Army Corps ofEngineers, oral commun., 2001). 

The city of New Orleans is drained by an extensive network of drainage canals (108 km of surface Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and subsurface canals) with 22 pumping stations. Most of the storm water drainage is pumped over the flood-protection levees into Lake Pontchartrain (Sewerage and Water Board of NewOrleans, 2001).

The following adaptation strategies would aid inreducing, but not eliminate, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks the vulnerability of the NewOrleans MSA to flood disaster:1. Upgrade levees and drainage systems to withstandCategory 4 and 5 hurricanes.2. Design and maintain flood protection on the basisof historical and projected rates of local subsid­ence, rainfall, and sea-level rise.

3. Minimize drain-and-fill activities, shallow subsur­face fluid withdrawals, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and other human devel­opments that enhance subsidence.4. Improve evacuation routes.5. Protect and restore coastal defenses.6. Encourage flood proofing of buildings and infra­ structure. 

7. Develop flood-potential maps that integrate local elevations, subsidence rates, and drainage capabilities (for use in the design of ordinances, greenbelts, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and other flood-damage reductionmeasures).GPS SOLUTIONS FOR MONITORING SUBSIDENCE IN LOUISIANA 

Accurate monitoring of land subsidence over timeis vital to providing data for calibrating models of landsubsidence and predicting subsidence, as well as pro­viding information for planning, constructing, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and maintaining infrastructure and levees. 

Historically,geodetic differential leveling has been used to measuresubsidence in the New Orleans MSA; it was very accu­rate but also very expensive. Over the past decade, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks GPS surveying techniques have proven to be so efficientand accurate that they are now routinely used in place ofclassical line-of-sight surveying methods for establish­ing horizontal control. 

Understandably, interest has alsobeen growing in using GPS techniques to establishaccurate vertical control. Progress, however, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks has beenhampered due to difficulties in obtaining sufficientlyaccurate geoid height differences to convert GPSderived ellipsoid height differences to accurate orthometric height differences.

These factors have recently been resolved, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks mak­ing GPS-derived orthometric heights a viable alter­native to classical line-of-sight geodetic differentialleveling techniques for many applications. 

Additional Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks information is available at the following web sites on thetopics of completion of the general adjustment of NAVD, development of NGS guidelines for establishingGPS-derived ellipsoid heights to meet 2- and5-cm standards (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/NGS-58.html), and computation of an accurate, nationwide, highresolution geoid model.

A cooperative study between the HarrisGalveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD) Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and the NGS is using GPS methods to measure subsidenceat a fraction of the cost of the previous method. Due tothe magnitude of subsidence in the Houston-Galvestonregion of southeastern Texas, there are no stable bench­marks in the area. 

Therefore, stable borehole extensom­eters were equipped with GPS antennas to provide a reference frame to measure subsidence at other stationsin the area. These stations are known as local GPSContinuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS).The NGS/HGCSD project uses dual-frequency, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks full-wavelength GPS instruments and geodetic anten­nas. 

Data are collected at 30-second sampling intervals Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and averaged over long periods, generally 24 hours.The goal is to yield differential vertical accuracy ofless than 10 mm in a totally automated mode operated by HGCSD personnel. 

Data have now been collectedfrom the three CORS sites and four portable GPS measuring stations called Port-A-Measures (PAMS), at 20 sites, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks for more than 4 years in the Houston-Galvestonregion. Results between CORS and PAMS indicatethat some geodetic monuments are subsiding as muchas 70 mm/yr and correlate well with extensometer data.

The joint NGS/HGCSD GPS subsidence project isdescribed in more detail by Zilkoski Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and others (p. 13 ofthese proceedings). Louisiana’s greatest environmental problem is thecontinuing loss of its coast. 

To address these problems, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks NGS in partnership with Louisiana State University through a newly created Louisiana Spatial Reference Center (LSRC) is building a statewide network of GPS CORS similar to the HGCSD network. 

Like theHGCSD network, the LSRC GPS CORS will be refer­enced to the National Oceanic Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and Atmospheric Admin­istration (NOAA) national CORS. The national GPSCORS will provide the framework for the LSRC CORSto measure yearly subsidence rates at the 10-mm level.

In addition to the continuously operating GPS CORS Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks and PAMS, specially designed GPS network surveys adhering to NGS guidelines will be performed to esti­mate the subsidence in local areas. 

Increases in mean sea level, coupled with the cur­rent low altitude of the land surface and Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks land-subsidence trends in the region, Water Extraction From Carpet After Pipe Breaks portend serious losses of life andproperty in the New Orleans MSA unless flood-controllevees and drainage systems are upgraded.

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