Water Damage >> Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher

Health Effects of Exposure to Water-Damaged New Orleans Homes Six Months After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita We identified groupings using a cluster Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher analysis on the natural logarithm of this score. 13 From that we defined an ordinal exposure variable ("exposure to water-damaged homes") as follows: 

0 = had not been inside a water-damaged home; 1= had been inside but had not participated in clean-up activities; 2 = participated in clean-up activities, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher clean-up score of 1; 3= participated in clean-up activities, clean-up score of 2, 3, or 4; 4 = participated in clean-up activities, clean-up score of 5 or more.Respiratory symptoms and exposure.

We examined the associations between individual symptoms of any severity and Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher exposure to water-damaged homes using contingency tables and the Cochran–Armitage trend test.To further model the relation between symptoms and exposure, we developed a "symptom score" for each participant. 

We assigned a value to each symptom on the basis of the reported grade (0 = none; 1 = mild; 2= moderate or severe) and Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher then summed the values. The URS score varied from 0 (no URS) to 6 (all 3 URSs, graded moderate or severe). 

The LRS score varied from 0 (no LRS) to 8 (all 4 LRSs, graded moderate or severe), and the overall symptom score varied from 0 (no URS or LRS) to 14 (all URSs and LRSs, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher graded moderate or severe). We conducted a principal components analysis and found high correlations between principal components and symptom scores.

Given these high correlations, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher we created multiple linear regression models using only symptom scores (URS, LRS, and overall respiratory symptoms) as the dependent variables. 

The independent variables were the categories of exposure to water-damaged homes, whether the respondent was still participating in clean-up, gender, age, race (White or other), smoking status (current, former, or never), and atopy (physician-diagnosed eczema or hay fever). Overall models Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher and models stratified by asthma were developed. 

We used the F test from analyses of variance (ANOVA) Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher and the Tukey HSD (honestly significant difference) test to determine significance. For independent variables with more than 2 response levels, we assessed linearity using the method of contrasts.Symptom exacerbations.

We used polytomous logistic regression models to investigate factors Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher associated with exacerbation of URS and LRS when inside a water-damaged home. 

We created a categorical response variable as follows: 0 = no symptoms; 1 = mild symptoms, not worse ("same" or "better") inside; 2= moderate or severe symptoms, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher not worse inside; 3 = mild symptoms, worse inside; 4= moderate orsevere symptoms, worse inside. 

To assess the effect of respiratory protection, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher we limited the analyses to participants who reported engaging in clean-up activities. The independent variables were those noted above plus the type of respiratory protection used during clean-up activities.

We categorized respiratory protection as follows: "no mask or respirator" (those who reported using no respiratory protection), Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher "mask only" (those who reported using only a mask), "no respirator" (those who reported using either no respiratory protection or only a mask), "any respirator" 

Those who reported using an N-95 FF respirator, reusable respirator, or both), and Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher "N-95 FF respirator only" (those who reported using an N-95 FF respirator but not a reusable respirator). 

Participants in the "any respirator" and "N-95 FF respirator only" categories also may have reported using a mask, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher but those in the "mask only" and "no respirator" categories did not report using a respirator. We used the χ2test to determine statistical significance.

For all analyses, we considered 2-sidedPvalue at .05 or below to be statistically significant, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher except for tests of trend for which we used 1-sided tests. We conducted analyses using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina) and JMP version 5.1 (SAS Institute).

RESULTS ParticipantsWe invited 659 eligible individuals to participate, 553 (84%) of whom agreed. Thus, 92% of the 600 visited waypoints were represented. Most (n = 45; 96%) unrepresented way Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher points were unoccupied. The participants had a median age of 50 years (Table 1 ). Half of the participants were men, and about half identified their race as 

White and half as African American or Black. Eighty-four (15%) participants reported that they had not been inside a water-damaged home since the hurricanes, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher and 95 (17%) reported that they had been inside but had not participated in clean-up activities. 

A total of 372 (68%) respondents had been inside and participated in clean-up activities of a median of 2 homes (range = 1–50). Of those who had participated in clean-up, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher 315 (86%) reported that they had used a mask or a respirator and 233 (63%) reported that they had used a respirator specifically.

Respiratory Symptoms and DiagnosesSince the hurricanes, 360 (65%) of the 553 participants had experienced at least 1 URS of any severity: 125 (23%) reported 1, 111 (20%) reported 2, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher and 124 (22%) reported 3 URSs. 

There were 245 (44%) participants who had experienced at least 1 LRS of any severity: 110 (20%) reported 1, 70 (13%) reported 2, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher 39 (7%) reported 3, and 26 (5%) reported 4 LRSs. Twenty-one (4%) participants reported all 7 respiratory symptoms. 

Among URSs, nasal symptoms were most common (n = 270; 49%), whereas among LRSs, cough was most common (n= 203; 37%).Lifetime and current prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma were 12% (n = 68) and 6% (n = 33), Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher respectively. No participant reported a new diagnosis of asthma since the hurricanes. 

Forty-eight (10%) of those without a diagnosis of asthma, and 11 (33%) of those with current asthma, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher reported experiencing at least 3 LRSs since the hurricanes. Prevalence of atopy was 14% (n= 80).Respiratory Symptoms and Exposure

The prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms varied significantly by the extent of exposure to water-damaged homes (Figure 1 ). For wheeze, period prevalence was 5% among participants who had not been inside a water-damaged home, 20% among participants who had been inside but had not participated in clean-up activities, Cleanup After Leaking Dishwasher and 29% among participants in the highest exposure category (P< .001 for trend). We found the same pattern for the other respiratory symptoms.

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