Water Damage >> Mold Damage House

Although not captured by the covariates or asthma stratification, it is possible that participants who had been inside but had not participated in clean-up were more susceptible to respiratory symptoms than were Mold Damage House others. 

Such susceptible participants may have chosen not to participate in clean-up upon entering a home and experiencing symptoms, Mold Damage House creating an effect similar to the "healthy worker" phenomenon in occupational cohort studies. 

Following the flooding in New Orleans, public health officials were obligated to make recommendations guided by little, if any, Mold Damage House existing data on what activities would pose a health risk. Our results suggest that simply entering a water-damaged home post flood, even without participating in clean-up, poses a greater risk of respiratory symptoms than previously hypothesized. 

These findings should inform future recommendations, Mold Damage House including those on respiratory protection, in the postflood setting.Participants who were still involved in clean-up at the time of the interview more frequently reported exacerbation of respiratory symptoms. This finding was independent of the number of homes cleaned and may reflect recall bias. 

However, it is possible that still participating in clean-up served as a marker for an unmeasured factor. For instance, 6 months after the storms, Mold Damage House the interiors of water-damaged homes may have been drier than earlier in the post flood period, promoting greater aerosolization of respirable particles and thus greater exposure.

Furthermore, individuals who returned to New Orleans later Mold Damage House and were thus still participating in clean-up may have had different susceptibility to respiratory symptoms than did those who returned and participated in clean-up earlier. 

Although we did not address such possible explanations directly, Mold Damage House the association we found suggests that the health risk posed by participating in clean-up of water-damaged homes can persist many months after the inciting flood. 

This point is particularly important for public health officials and health care providers when advising the public Mold Damage House and caring for symptomatic individuals months after a flood.The recommendation to use respirators during clean-up activities was widely heeded. 

Of all persons surveyed, Mold Damage House two thirds had participated in clean-up activities and more than two fifths had used a respirator during cleanup. On the basis of residential population estimates done 1 month before this survey, 

These findings suggest that the recommendation was relevant to approximately 105 000 adults in Orleans Parish alone, Mold Damage House and that of those, approximately 65 000 followed the recommendation. We found that respirator use was negatively associated with exacerbation of respiratory symptoms when inside a water-damaged home, indicating a protective effect. 

For both URSs and LRSs, we saw this effect regardless of respirator category. OR estimates were less than 1 for both mild symptoms and moderate or severe symptoms that got worse when inside, and many reached statistical significance. For mask use, Mold Damage House we did not find a consistent protective effect.

The ability of certified respirators to filter fungal particles has been investigated in previous experimental and field studies. In a pilot project conducted in New Orleans from November 2005 to January 2006, researchers evaluated 2 respirators, Mold Damage House concluding that the reusable respirator provided greater protection against fungal spores than did the disposable N-95 FF respirator.

To our knowledge, our investigation is the first to find that respirator use Mold Damage House (and specifically N-95 FF respirator use) during clean-up of water-damaged homes protects against respiratory symptoms. This finding is particularly notable given that we did not collect detailed information on respirator use. 

The participants categorized as using a respirator during clean-up were likely heterogeneous in the amount of clean-up time they spent without a respirator and in how well they followed manufacturers' guidelines on respirator use Mold Damage House (e.g., maintaining a good seal, replacing dirty filter material). 

This heterogeneity may have led us to underestimate the true protective effect of respirator use on symptom exacerbation. Limitations There are several limitations to our study. Assessments of respiratory health effects and Mold Damage House exposure were limited to participants' reports. 

Validations of questions on respiratory symptoms and diagnoses suggest that they have high specificity but lower sensitivity for conditions confirmed through testing, such as asthma and rhinitis. Thus, Mold Damage House some participants not identified by our questionnaire may have been found to have respiratory pathology with further testing. 

Residents' reports of homes' percentage of mold coverage were validated soon after the hurricanes via independent home inspections, Mold Damage House suggesting such reports are reliable (M. A. R., PhD, MPH, unpublished data, 2005). However, we may have found a stronger correlation between exposure and symptoms by incorporating environmental sampling.

Another limitation is that we considered participants to have asthma only if diagnosed by a physician. The fact that no participant reported a new Mold Damage House diagnosis of asthma since the hurricanes may reflect a lack of new asthma in the population. 

Yet at the time of our survey, the number of physicians practicing in Orleans Parish had fallen to less than half of the pre-Katrina number, Mold Damage House and services at functioning medical facilities were limited. 

Had health care been more accessible following the hurricanes, it is possible that some participants would have been newly diagnosed with asthma, Mold Damage House particularly among the 10% of those without an asthma diagnosis who reported experiencing at least 3 LRSs. 

Finally, Mold Damage House the small numbers in some subgroups likely limited our ability to establish the statistical significance of some results. Conclusions Six months after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, respiratory symptoms were common in New Orleans. 

Both URSs and LRSs were positively associated with exposure to water-damaged homes, even exposure limited to being inside without participating in clean-up activities. Respirators, Mold Damage House including disposable N-95 FF respirators, had a protective effect against symptom exacerbation when inside a water-damaged home. 

Public health authorities and health care providers should consider advising the public to use respirators when inside water-damaged homes, Mold Damage House regardless of activities undertaken while inside.

Lead Paint Removal Requirements

Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than 30 days per year, the employer shall implement engineering, work practice, and administrative controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead in accordance with the following implementation schedule ex  read more..

Get Rid Of Mold And Mildew In The Crawl Space Under A Mobile Home

Most building codes require crawlspace vents to aid in removing moisture from the crawlspace. However, many building professionals are now recognizing that an unvented crawlspace (or closing crawlspace vents after the crawlspace has had time to dry out after construction) is the best option in homes  read more..

Lead Paint Removal And Disposal

How Are Workers Exposed to Lead?Workers can be exposed to lead by creating dust or fumes during everyday work activities. Fumes are easier to breathe in and therefore maybe more dangerous than dust. These are some of the most common ways to be exposed.LEAD DUST is produced in many ways including: Gr  read more..

Lead House Paint Removal

Lead was used in house paint to add color, enhance the durability of the house paint to hide the surface it covers, and to make it last a lot longer. In 1978 the government barred lead house paint for use in houses. Houses that were built before 1978 most lik  read more..

Lead Paint Removal Poisoning

Where the employer does establish that the employee is exposed to levels of lead below 2,500 µg/m3, the employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate respirator prescribed for use at such lower exposures, in accordance with Table I of this section. Interim protection as described i  read more..

Trash Clean Up From Florida Hurricanes

We reported that these capability gaps are exacerbated by the need for a clear and consolidated body of PA guidance, and highlighted debris issues specifically in the following summary: FEMA's policy on debris removal is unclear and thus open to interpretation. As a result, some communities have bee  read more..

Illinois Regulations For Asbestos Removal

What is Vermiculite? Vermiculite is a naturally-occurring mineral composed of shiny flakes, resembling mica. When heated to a high temperature, flakes of vermiculite expand as much as 8-30 times their original size. The expanded vermiculite is a light-weight, fire-resistant, and odorlessà read more..

How To Get Rid Of Mold

Equipment Moisture Meters: Measure/Monitor Moisture Levels in Building Materials Moisture meters may be helpful for measuring the moisture content in a variety of building materials following water damage. They can also be used to monitor the process of drying damaged materials. These direct reading  read more..

Clean Up Procedures For Mold In A Crawl Space

Crawl spaces and basements can become moisture laden, supporting the growth of mold and the decay of building materials and providing ideal conditions for insect pests and even rodents. Moisture and contaminants can be driven into living spaces by the differences in air pressure between the crawl sp  read more..

How To Remove Residential Asbestos Siding

"Asbestos project" means an activity undertaken to remove or encapsulate friable asbestos containing materials. (b) "Business entity" means a partnership, firm, association, corporation, sole proprietorship, or other business concern. (c) "Certificate" means an Asbestos Abatement How To Remove Residential Asbestos Siding authorization issu  read more..