Odor Control >> Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House

The overall performance of a lift station depends on the performance of the pumps. All pumps have four common performance characteristics: capacity,head, power, and overall efficiency. Capacity (flowrate) is the quantity of liquid pumped per unit of time, typically measured as gallons per minute(gpm) or Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House million gallons per day (mgd). 

Head is the energy supplied to the wastewater per unit weight, typically expressed as feet of water. Power is the energy consumed by a pump per unit time,typically measured as kilowatt-hours. Overall efficiency is the ratio of useful hydraulic work performed to actual work input. Efficiency reflects the pump relative power losses and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House is usually measured as a percentage of applied power.

Pump performance curves (Figure 4) are used todefine and compare the operating characteristics ofa pump and to identify the best combination ofperformance characteristics under which a liftstation pumping system will operate under typicalconditions (flows and heads). Pump systemsoperate at 75 to 85 percent efficiency most of thetime, Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House while overall pump efficiency depends on thetype of installed pumps, their control system, andthe fluctuation of influent wastewater flow.

Performance optimization strategies focus ondifferent ways to match pump operationalcharacteristics with system flow and headrequirements. They may include the followingoptions: Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House adjusting system flow paths installing variable speed drives; using parallel pumpsinstalling pumps of different sizes trimming a pumpimpeller; or putting a two-speed motor on one ormore pumps in a lift station. 

Optimizing systemperformance may yield significant electrical energysavings.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Lift station operation is usually automated and does not require continuous on-site operator presence. However, Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House frequent inspections are recommended toensure normal functioning and to identify potentialproblems. 

Lift station inspection typically includesobservation of pumps, motors and drives forunusual noise, vibration, heating and leakage, checkof pump suction and discharge lines for valving arrangement Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House and leakage, check of control panelswitches for proper position, monitoring ofdischarge pump rates and pump speed, andmonitoring of the pump suction and dischargepressure. 

Weekly inspections are typicallyconducted, although the frequency really dependson the size of the lift station.If a lift station is equipped with grinder bar screensto remove coarse materials from the wastewater,these materials are collected in containers and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House disposed of to a sanitary landfill site as needed. Ifthe lift station has a scrubber system for odorcontrol, chemicals are supplied and replenishedtypically every three months. 

If chemicals areadded for odor control ahead of the lift station, the chemical feed stations should be inspected weekly Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House and chemicals replenished as needed.The most labor-intensive task for lift stations isroutine preventive maintenance. A well-plannedmaintenance program for lift station pumpsprevents unnecessary equipment wear anddowntime. 

Lift station operators must maintain aninventory of critical spare parts. The number ofspare parts in the inventory depends on the criticalneeds of the unit, the rate at which the part normallyfails, and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House the availability of the part. The operatorshould tabulate each pumping element in the systemand its recommended spare parts. 

This informationis typically available from the operation andmaintenance manuals provided with the lift station.COSTSLift station costs depend on many factors, including(1) wastewater quality, quantity, and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House projections; (2) zoning and land use planning of the area wherethe lift station will be located; (3) alternatives forstandby power sources; (4) operation and maintenance needs and support.

Soil propertiesand underground conditions; (6) required lift to thereceiving (discharge) sewer line; (7) the severity ofimpact of accidental sewage spill upon the localarea; and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House (8) the need for an odor control system.These site and system specific factors must beexamined and incorporated in preparing a liftstation cost estimate.

Construction CostsThe most important factors influencing cost are thedesign lift station capacity and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House the installed pumppower. Another cost factor is the lift stationcomplexity. Factors which classify a lift station ascomplex include two or more of the following: (1)extent of excavation; (2) congested site and/orrestricted access; (3) rock excavation.

Extensive dewatering requirements, such as cofferdams; (5)site conflicts, including modification or removal ofexisting facilities; (6) special foundations, includingpiling; (7) dual power supply and on-site switch stations and Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House emergency power generator; and (8)high pumping heads (design heads in excess of200 ft).

Mechanical, electrical, and control equipmentdelivered to a pumping station construction sitetypically account for 15 to 30 percent of totalconstruction costs. Lift station construction has asignificant economy-of-scale. Typically, if thecapacity of a lift station is increased 100 percent, Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House the construction cost would increase only 50 to 55 percent. 

An important consideration is that twoidentical lift stations will cost 25 to 30 percent morethan a single station of the same combined capacity.Usually, complex lift stations cost two to threetimes more than more simple lift stations with noconstruction complications.Table 1 provides examples of complex lift stations Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House and associated construction costs in 1999 dollars. 

Lift station operation and maintenance costs include power, Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House labor, maintenance, and chemicals (if usedfor odor control). Usually, the costs for solidsdisposal are minimal, but are included if the liftstation is equipped with bar screens to removecoarse materials from the wastewater. 

Typically, Get The Smell Of Raw Sewage Out Of The House power costs account for 85 to 95 percent of the totaloperation and maintenance costs and are directlyproportional to the unit cost of power and the actualpower used by the lift station pumps. Labor costsaverage 1 to 2 percent of total costs. Annualmaintenance costs vary, depending on thecomplexity of the equipment and instrumentation.

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The correlation is even stronger than just by the day of test. Because each test had a 250 nm probe and a 4500 nm probe, the test-to-test correlation was strong as seen in Figure 11. The strength of the correlation seems to reinforce the variability in the performance of the material and not just un  read more..

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