Odor Control >> Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire

During a fire, soot agglomerations are segregated in the air due to flotation effects, the larger agglomerations dropping out of the air closest to the fire and the finer agglomerations farther from the fire. Soot particles will penetrate the finest crevices of a surface and remain physically trapped, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire their attachment enhanced by electrostatic attraction. 

In solution, the carbon can reach an atomic scale of fineness that will then be redeposited in this size when a cleaning solvent evaporates. Soot will embed into porous and compromised surfaces such as those melted by the heat of a fire (Williams 1990).These Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire characteristics of soot account for the phenomena that the RSM conservators noticed while in the preliminary stages of fire recovery. 

After completion of cleaning tests on a white pelican, it was noted that the threads used to separate different cleaning tests had left thin gray lines where they had pressed the soot into the feathers, and these lines could not be removed. Also, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire if an inappropriate wet-cleaning agent was used on a varnished acrylic diorama painting, a gray layer remained and also could not be removed.

REMOVAL OF SOOT USING A PROGRESSIVE CLEANING TECHNIQUE The impact of the qualities of soot on cleaning techniques is illustrated by the ease with which soot, more so than almost any other particulate matter, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire can become ingrained in the surface of an artifact. For effective removal of soot, there must be mechanical and solvent action to clean but without breaking up delicate agglomerations of soot into yet finer particles. 

Cleaning techniques should be designed to avoid embedding particles into a surface either mechanically or through the use of organic solvents that will extract oily components that can be absorbed into an artifact surface along with the particles of carbon black.The acidic nature of soot adds a degree of urgency to its removal, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire as does the observed phenomenon that soot becomes more strongly attached to surfaces over time. 

Testing at the RSM showed that Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire some objects were more difficult to clean six weeks after a fire than they were after only one week. Conservators have theorized that this effect may be due to cross-linking, but it may also be related to the physical compacting of a soot layer over time. 

Generally speaking, removal of soot during recovery after the RSM fire became even more difficult if the soot layer had been compacted through excessive handling or movement, if the object had been subjected to high humidity conditions, or if an unsuccessful cleaning attempt had been made.At the RSM, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire response of soot to cleaning treatments varied tremendously depending on the type of material surface that was being cleaned. 

In addition, in different areas of the museum, and indeed on different areas of the same object, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire differential heating called for the use of different cleaning regimes. Nevertheless, the conservators found that the predictable characteristics of soot make it imperative that certain general guidelines be followed during the removal of soot from objects following a fire.

RSM conservators found that a strict progressive cleaning procedure that begins with vacuuming and moves to dry-surface-cleaning, then to wet-cleaning, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire will guarantee the highest degree of soot removal for most objects. This success is particularly true of soot loosely to moderately bound; for cleaning of more tightly bound layers of soot, the procedure is less critical but still applicable. 

Step 1: Vacuuming Removal of soot by vacuum should be the first step in a soot removal treatment. In a post disaster situation, the highest degree of soot removal is possible only if an artifact is vacuumed before it is touched Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire and certainly before it is packed and moved. Vacuuming should be carried out with direct use of the vacuum nozzle and, wherever possible, without the use of a screen or brush, which may embed soot in the surface. 

The vacuum nozzle should not touch the surface of the object. For firm objects, it is possible to hold a crevice tool above the surface of the object, propped on a finger, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire which is passed over an already cleaned area. A circular vacuum cleaner attachment (a nozzle can be made by cutting back the hairs on a brush attachment) can also be used directly on a surface, which is then pulled upward to repeat the process in an adjacent area. 

To avoid dispersing a soot layer, it is essential that an object be vacuumed "as it is found." For example, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire a textile that is folded should not be unfolded. Surfaces should be vacuumed first, and then cleaning can proceed to inner areas and crevices. To provide for the most controlled movements, vacuuming is best done with assistance; one person may hold a painting while another applies the vacuum. 

Portable canister vacuums such as shop vacuums or small canister vacuums should have a long length of hose complete with a crevice tool, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire a large circular nozzle, and mini-attachments as required. At the RSM, a vacuum with a HEPA filter was used to clean natural history specimens, but ordinary canister vacuums worked admirably for general soot removal from other objects. 

No vacuums burned out or encountered mechanical problems. The vacuum bags had to be changed frequently, Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire and vacuum attachments required repeated washing to decrease soot transfer.3.2.2 3.2.2 Step 2: Dry-Surface-Cleaning Mechanical and dry-surface-cleaning materials are indispensable in the removal of minute soot particles. 

Depending on the surface to be cleaned, appropriate materials might include the use of erasers: eraser powder such as Skum-X, block erasers, particularly art gum and vinyl erasers, and Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire mechanical erasers (Selick 1996). Elizabeth Moffatt (1992)points out that many of the dry-surface-cleaning materials that are particularly suited to soot removal are composed of vulcanized rubber: 

Skum-X eraser powder, Groom/Stick Molecular Trap, and soot sponges. Where bulk cleaning procedures are appropriate, an object can be cleaned in a tray of eraser powder. Fine glass beads (e.g., B.T. 13) can be used to lift and hold soot from a surface. Groom/Stick Molecular Trap has a particular ability to pick up and Naturally Remove Smoke After A Fire hold soot and is useful for surfaces that are porous or textured or have tiny recesses.

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