Odor Control >> The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage

Therefore, the monitoring and control of VSCs including H2S from the sewer could be the most important task to reduce public odor complaints about the sewer system.Recently, a few researchers have successfully applied on-line total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzers for the monitoring of sulfur emissions from sewage, sludge, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage and unit processes of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). 

For example, in the study performed at the Blue Plains WWTP in the District of Columbia (USA) [12], The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage a TRS analyzer was successfully utilized to monitor VSCs from bio-solids handling processes. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (Canada) regulates the ambient odor quality near a WWTP, using the data obtained with on-line TRS and SO2analyzers [14]. 

In the case of a WWTP near Nearys Lagoon in the City of Santa Cruz (CA, USA) [15], The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage the TRS is monitored at the end of the force main near the WWTP of the city for predicting potential odor release from the plant. Several WWTPs in Korea [16] also monitor VSCs from their unit processes using on-line TRS analyzers.

A few strategies have been proposed to reduce the odor emission from the sewers in Korea. They include the modification of street inlets, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage increasing the treatment efficiency of sewage disposal tanks, the reduction of eddy flow occurring when the outflow pump of a sewage disposal tank is on, and spraying (or injecting) an odor-reducing agent into sewer pipes (or sewage). 

Especially, the last one is often selected by local governments in South Korea, because it is easy to implement, and The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage a number of odor reducing agents have been commercialized in South Korea for this purpose. However, the evaluation of their efficiency has not been performed objectively and systemically. 

Therefore, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage local governments are often confused when selecting a proper odor-reducing agent. Conventional evaluation of the effectiveness of a technique to control odors from sewer systems involves collecting gas samples for instrumental analysis before and after the control technique is applied. 

In fact, since odors are generated instantaneously from the sewer, intermittent gas sampling and The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage analysis often fail to determine the effectiveness of an odor control technique of interest. In order to properly monitor and control the intermittently-occurring odors, a strategy to continuously monitor odor emission is required.

The objective of the current study was to objectively evaluate the efficiency of five commercial odor-reducing agents on sewer odor. Therefore, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage the agents were sprayed into the sewer in five different commercial districts; one agent for one district. VSC emissions from the sewer were continuously monitored using a TRS analyzer before and after each agent was sprayed into the sewer pipes at each study site. 

Based on the VSC emission profiles observed at each site, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage the efficiency of the odor-reducing agent applied to the site was evaluated. In addition, gas samples were also collected from each site before and after an agent applied, and analyzed for individual odorants. Odor Reducing Agents Evaluated in This Study

In this study, a total of five odor-reducing agents were evaluated for their effectiveness in controlling sewer odors; four are commercially-marketed odor-reducing agents, and The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage one is a common chemical oxidant [17]. They are a masking agent made of phytoncide (Agent-A), a water-based agent with natural minerals (Agent-B), a biological agent in the dormancy state (Agent-C), a gel-type agent made from natural plants (Agent-D), and NaOCl (Agent-E). 

The characteristics, working principle, and spraying method of each agent are summarized inTable 1. The manufacturers of the commercial odor-reducing agents A, B, C, and D did not disclose detailed The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage information on the ingredients of their agents. The application rate and method for each odor-reducing agent were determined following the manufacturers' directions.

Experiments were performed at five commercial areas in Seoul, South Korea (Figure 1). These particular study sites have been the target of the odor complaints because there are many fancy shops and luxury restaurants attracting large floating populations. Therefore, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage for these sites, five odor reducing agents were applied and their effectiveness was evaluated; one agent was applied to one site. 

The odorous sulfur gases, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage as an indicator for odor sensation from each site were continuously monitored using an on-line TRS analyzer (M102E Teledyne Instrument, San Diego, CA, USA) installed at a manhole of each site. Each odor-reducing agent was sprayed at a point of 300 to 500 m upstream from the location where the TRS analyzer was installed. 

The followings are brief descriptions of each study site:District-ONE is located near the Seoul Metropolitan City Hall. In the district, there are many fancy restaurants The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage and coffee houses as well as government offices. Therefore, this district is busy at lunch and dinner times, when large amounts of wastewater are discharged.

District-TWO is located along a 2 km-long side road where 32 commercial high rise buildings The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage and 28,000 shops are located. Since this district is located near Cheonggye-cheon Stream (one of the most popular tourist destinations in Seoul), it is always crowded,i.e., several million people visit the location every day. 

Therefore, a relatively large amount of wastewater is always discharged into the sewer.District-THREE is a market place formed around a subway station and a woman's university with numerous fashionable boutiques for young women and food/drink establishments. The daily averages of the floating population in the district are about 60,000 to 70,000 on weekdays The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage and about 20,000 on weekends. 

The floating population peaks at 3 to 6 p.m. and this area is always busy till late at night. As a result, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage the amount of wastewater increases in the evening.District-FOUR is located on a side street where small shops and theaters are located. The daily floating population of the area is about 180,000. 

Young people in particular gather in the district from the evening till the dawn.District-FIVE is located near a convention center and there are many restaurants and offices as well as luxury hotels. Therefore, The Effects Of Breathing Raw Sewage this district is busy at lunch and dinner times, when a large amount of wastewater is discharged.

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