Radon Mitigation >> How Does Radon Affect Humans

GB - Grab Radon/Pump-Collapsible Bag This method uses a sample bag made of material impervious to radon. At the sample site, a skilled technician using a portable pump fills the bag with air, then transports it to the laboratory for analysis. Usually, the analysis method is to transfer air from the bag to a scintillation cell and perform analysis in the manner described for the How Does Radon Affect Humans grab radon/scintillation cell (GS) method below.

GS - Grab Radon/Scintillation Cell For this method, How Does Radon Affect Humans a skilled operator draws air through a filter to remove radon decay products into a scintillation cell either by opening a valve on a scintillation cell that has previously been evacuated using a vacuum pump or by drawing air through the cell until air inside the cell is in equilibrium with the air being sampled, then sealed. 

To analyze the air sample, How Does Radon Affect Humans the window end of the cell is placed on a photo multiplier tube to count the scintillations (light pulses) produced when alpha particles from radon decay strike the zinc sulfide coating on the inside of the cell. A calculation is made to convert the counts to radon concentrations.

SC - Three-Day Integrating Evacuated Scintillation Cell For this method, a scintillation cell is fitted with a restrict or valve and a negative pressure gauge. Prior to deployment, How Does Radon Affect Humans the scintillation cell is evacuated. At the sample site, a skilled technician notes negative pressure reading and opens the valve. The flow through the valve is slow enough that it takes more than the 3-day sample period to fill the cell. 

At the end of the sample period, the technician closes the valve,notes the negative pressure gauge reading, How Does Radon Affect Humans and returns with the cell to the laboratory. Analysis procedures are approximately the same as for the GS method described above. A variation of this method involves use of the above valve on a rigid container requiring that the sampled air be transferred to a scintillation cell for analysis. 

PB - Pump-Collapsible Bag (1-day)For this method, a sample bag impervious to radon is filled over a 24-hour period. This How Does Radon Affect Humans is usually accomplished by a pump Programmed to pump small amounts of air at predetermined intervals during the sampling period. After sampling, analysis procedures are similar to those for the GB method.

RADON DECAY PRODUCT MEASUREMENT METHODS CW - Continuous Working Level Monitoring This How Does Radon Affect Humans method encompasses those devices that record real-time continuous measurement of radon decay products. Radon decay products are sampled by continuously pumping air through a filter. 

A detector such as a diffused-junction or How Does Radon Affect Humans surface-barrier detector counts the alpha particles produced by radon decay products as they decay on this filter. The monitor typically contains a microprocessor that stores the number of counts for predetermined time intervals for later recall. Measurement time for the Program measurement test is approximately 24 hours.14. 

GW - Grab Working Level For this method, a known volume of air is pulled through a filter, How Does Radon Affect Humans collecting the radon decay products onto the filter. Sampling time usually is 5 minutes. The decay products are counted using an alpha detector. Counting must be done with precise timing after the filter sample is taken. 

The two counting procedures most commonly used are the Kusnitz and the Tsivoglou methods described in the Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Device Protocols.15. RP - Radon Progeny (Decay Product) Integrating Sampling Unit For this method, How Does Radon Affect Humans a low-flow air pump pulls air continuously through a filter. 

Depending on the detector used, the radiation emitted by the decay products trapped on the filter is registered on two thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), an alpha track detector, How Does Radon Affect Humans or an electret. The devices presently available require access to a household electrical supply, but do not require a skilled operator. 

Deployment simply requires turning the device on at the start of the sampling period and off at the end.The sampling period should be at least 72 hours. After sampling, How Does Radon Affect Humans the detector assembly is shippedto a laboratory where analysis of the alpha track and electret types is performed using procedures describedfor these devices (AT, EL, and ES) elsewhere in this appendix. 

The TLD detectors are How Does Radon Affect Humans analyzed by an instrument that heats the TLD detector and measures the light emitted. A calculation converts the light measurement to radon concentrations. GENERAL DOCUMENTS The following documents are important to participation in the RPP. All documents mentioned in the Handbook are included here. 

Information on the availability and How Does Radon Affect Humans cost (if any) of these documents can be obtained by contacting the Radon Proficiency Program Information Service (RIS), see page 7. Documents only available (for a fee) from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) have an added NTIS citation. The NTIS document identification numbers are included in the parenthetical NTIS reference. 

NTIS documents can be ordered by phone by calling the NTIS Order Desk at (703) 487-4650. The address for the NTIS appears in Section 2 of the Handbook.Citizen's Guide to Radon Reduction: (EPA 402-K-92-001); general information about radon, How Does Radon Affect Humans how to detect it in your home, and the health risks associated with it.

Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: (EPA 402-K-92-003); consumer information on how to select a qualified contractor to reduce radon levels in their homes, determine an appropriate radon reduction method, and How Does Radon Affect Humans maintain their radon reduction system.Cumulative Data for Performance Test Outcomes, Fact Sheet: (EPA 402-F-93-004); comparison of pass,retest and fail rates for each measurement method for device performance tests.

Home Buyer's and Seller's Guide to Radon: (EPA 402-R--92-003); information to home buyers and sellers about key questions about radon. How to Pay Your Radon Proficiency Program User Fees: (EPA/ORIA); provides information on the RPP user fees and How Does Radon Affect Humans the invoicing process. Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Device Protocols: (EPA 402-R-92-004); technical information on measurement devices and guidance for measuring radon and radon decay products. 

(NTIS: PB-92-206176)National Radon Proficiency Program Fact Sheet: (EPA 402-F-93-002-A2); information about the Radon Proficiency Program requirements.Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurements in Homes: (EPA 402-R-93-003); How Does Radon Affect Humans guidance in making reproducible measurements in residences, including measurements for real estate transactions, and recommendations for using the results for further testing or in taking remedial action. 

(NTIS: PB-93-204014). Radon Proficiency Program: Guidance on Quality Assurance: (EPA 402-R-95-012); provides information on the proper QA practices applicable to radon measurement and How Does Radon Affect Humans analysis. The generic information in supplemented with information specific to various measurement methodologies.

Ceiling Leak Repair From Frozen Pipe

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