Smoke Damage >> Classifications Of Smoke Damage

The maximum optical density, Dm, is used primarily in ranking the relative smoke production of a material and in identifying likely sources of severe smoke production. Concerns with the test include the relatively low heat flux exposure, vertical sample mounting, and Classifications Of Smoke Damage oxygen supply within the closed test cabinet. 

Several researchers have concluded that tests like the Smoke Density Chamber do not provide a representation of the smoke emissions to be expected in real-scale fires [39–42]The International Organization for Standardization Smoke Chamber Test, ISO 5659 (also standardized as ASTM E 1995), shown in Figure 6, Classifications Of Smoke Damage uses the same closed test chamber as the ASTM E 662 test, but with an improved specimen holder and exposure system [43,44]. 

The test apparatus includes a conical heater that can provide a heat flux level as high as 50 kW/m2to a75 mm (3 in) by 75 mm (3 in) horizontal test specimen. Either flaming or non-flaming ignition is supported. Like the ASTM E 662 test, opacity measurements are with a vertically-oriented photometric system. In addition, Classifications Of Smoke Damage mass optical density can be obtained with an optional load cell that continuously monitors the mass of the test specimen. 

While the test retains the limitations of a closed chamber like the ASTM E 662 test, Classifications Of Smoke Damage it provides a more uniform sample heating that can be varied over a wider range to provide more realistic exposure. In addition, the load cell permits direct measurement of mass optical density. Dynamic tests which measure smoke obscuration have typically evolved from existing test methods that measure other fire properties such as heat release rate. 

These include the Ohio State University (OSU) calorimeter, ASTM E 906 [45], and the cone calorimeter, ASTM E 1354[46].The ASTM E 906 apparatus, Figure 7, Classifications Of Smoke Damage is used largely for aircraft applications. The test exposes avertically- or horizontally-oriented specimen to radiant heat. Sample ignition may be nonpiloted, by ignition of evolved gases, or by flame impingement on the surface of the sample. 

The sample is contained within a chamber through which a constant flow of air passes. Measurement of the temperature change and opacity of the gas leaving the chamber allows determination of the rates of both heat and Classifications Of Smoke Damage smoke release as the specimen burns. While an upper limit for sample exposure heat flux of 100 kW/m2is specified in the standard [45], difficulties are noted with heatfluxes above 50 kW/m2[47]. 

Specimen size is typically 150 mm (5.9 in) by 150 mm (5.9 in),but may be reduced if specimen heat release rate is large enough to allow flames into the hood of the apparatus. For smoke measurement, Classifications Of Smoke Damage a photometer is incorporated on top of the exhaust hood. Issues with measurement of heat and smoke release rates have limited the usefulness of the apparatus and most work has transitioned to use of the cone calorimeter.

The cone calorimeter (see Figure 8) makes use of an electric radiant heater in the form of atruncated cone, Classifications Of Smoke Damage hence its name. The apparatus is general-purpose in that it may be used to test products for various applications. The heater is capable of being set to a wide variety of heating fluxes from 0 to 100 kW/m2. 

The design of the heater was influenced by the ISO test for radiant ignition, Classifications Of Smoke Damage ISO 5657 [48]. The technical features are documented in several references [49–52]. Some of the most salient features include: horizontal or vertical specimen orientation, composite and laminated specimens can be tested, continuous mass loss load cell readings.

Feedback-loop controlled heater operation, HRR calibration using methane metered with mass flow controller, smoke measured with laser-beam photometer and Classifications Of Smoke Damage gravimetrically, and provision for analyzing CO, CO2, H2O, HCl, and other combustion gases. The cone calorimeter is standardized as ASTM E 1354 [46] and ISO 5660 [53]. 

Smoke obscuration in the cone calorimeter is measured by a laser-based smoke measurement system inthe exhaust stream. Smoke is reported from the test as the specific extinction area, Classifications Of Smoke Damage the product of the extinction coefficient and volumetric flow rate divided by the mass loss rate. Hirschler [54,55] and Grayson [38] provide excellent critiques of bench-scale smoke measurement. 

Corrosion Test Methods A number of test methods have been developed and standardized for testing the corrosive hazard due to smoke. While the study of corrosion due to combustion products is certainly not new[56,57], the effort to develop a modern test method is fairly recent. Initially, Classifications Of Smoke Damage testing of the corrosivity of fire effluent was based on indirect measurements such as the amount of halogenated acids the fire effluent produces, the pH, or conductance of the fire effluent. 

While the tests are relatively straightforward to perform, Classifications Of Smoke Damage there is currently no means to take the data from any of these indirect standards and estimate corrosion damage in a real fire. The inherent limits of indirect methods have resulted in the development of a number of direct methods to measure corrosivity of a test material’s smoke. 

Direct methods expose a test probe directly to the smoke and Classifications Of Smoke Damage measure the amount of corrosion that occurs. After the 1974 electronic system fire in Poitiers France, the Centre National d'Études des Télécommunications (CNET) developed what is considered the first modern test of corrosivity. 

In 1987, ASTM committee E 5.21.70 and Classifications Of Smoke Damage the International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC) committee SC 50D each held initial meetings with the objective of developing standard corrosion tests. Initially the ASTM 5.21.70 committee developed ten criteria for an acceptable test for corrosion [60] as follows: 

1. Test should measure performance 2. Combustion module should simulate real fire energies and Classifications Of Smoke Damage growth rate 3. All products should be tested in the same manner 4. Combustion conditions should be capable of being varied 5. The exposure module should reflect real life conditions 6. The exposure target should be capable of being varied 

7. Protocol should allow a reasonable time between exposure and Classifications Of Smoke Damage measurement 8. Protocol should consider transport of the combustion products and their decomposition on the target surface 9. Test protocol should not require excessively long use of equipment or operator time 10. 

Test equipment should be relatively low priced. IEC SC 50D first considered the matter of corrosion in 1982 but it wasn’t until 1987 that IEC SC50D WG 3 [61] held its first meeting, Classifications Of Smoke Damage which in part addressed the issue of the corrosivity of fire effluent. They began preparation of a draft summary of the future guidance document on corrosivity. 

Subsection titles from their initial report suggest important factors in the test method as follows: Relevant fire models Relevant corrosion targets Effluent transport Scaling factor Relevant small scale direct tests Development of Classifications Of Smoke Damage derived (short time, inexpensive, correlatable) test methods for routine quality control.

Damage both in room of fire and remote in space and time to fire Misuse of tests and test data both of these lists suggest, Classifications Of Smoke Damage corrosion is a complex process, and developing an ideal test for the corrosivity of smoke from fires requires broad expertise.

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