Smoke Damage >> DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood

In one set of tests, the vertical plates were placed with a fixed spacing of 2.5 mm. In these tests, the plates were biased with 5 Vdc, 50 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1 Vac. The current flow between the dc-biased plates was monitored during exposure. The ac-biased plates were analyzed to measure DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood admittance from 500 kHz to 30 MHz. 

Video of these experiments was recorded to monitor the behavior of soot particles in electrical fields.In a different set of experiments [19], the plates spaced at distances from 3 mm to 25 mm subjected to a rising ac bias, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood up to 4.2 kV. The voltage was allowed to rise until arcing occurred.Current and voltage behavior during arcing were measured.

It was found that higher voltages (50 V and 500 V) attracted smoke particles to the plates and DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood significantly increased conductance between the plates. The smoke particles were observed to accumulate between the two plates and create conductive bridges. As a result, conductance increased very quickly with smoke density but decreased much less quickly and leveled out at approximately 20 % of its peak value. 

Conductance only returned to near zero values when forced ventilation of the chamber disrupted the accumulated soot bridges.The interdigitated comb boards biased at 5 V, 50 V and 500 V were tested for conductance overtime DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood and total mass of smoke deposited. 

Inspection of the boards after exposure showed that soot preferentially deposited on the traces of the boards at higher voltages, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood resulting in a less even distribution of soot on the 50 V and 500 V boards. Although distribution pattern varied with voltage, the total mass deposited depended only upon the total fuel load. 

Conductance increased sharply with the smoke level and DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood decreased as the smoke cleared. The conductance of the 5 V board recovered far less effectively than the 50 V and 500 V boards. It was suggested that this was due to the more even distribution of soot.2.2 Telecommunications Equipment Outside of the nuclear power industry, the overall cost of a fire may be more important than a temporary loss of functionality. 

While the short term failure of equipment has a cost in lost business, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood the damage caused by non-thermal fire environments can easily total millions of dollars[3]. Thus, the cost of a fire event can be significantly decreased if components exposed to smoke can be recovered and returned to service, rather than being replaced. 

As such, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood much of the research in this industry has focused on understanding and mitigating the forms of non thermal damage that can decrease the lifetime of equipment.2.2.1 Corrosion The most commonly identified and studied mechanism of non-thermal damage is corrosion caused by the chemical products of combustion. 

Starting in the late eighties, prompted by reports of extensive corrosion damage and accumulated corrosive products found in a number of separate telecommunications facilities during the 1970’s and 1980’s, researchers began to develop the theoretical and empirical basis for characterizing the release, transport DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood and impact of corrosive compounds from fires.

A significant part of this work was the development of a number of bench-scale laboratory experimental testing methods for determining the potential of the combustion products of a particular fuel to corrode metal (detailed in section 3.2). However, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood these standards are of a very simplistic nature and do not necessarily provide immediate insight into the complex phenomena associated with real-world fire scenarios. 

In order to develop prevention and recovery procedures, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood a number of intermediate and full scale test fires of a more realistic nature were required. The first steps that Tewarson and Chu [20] took in evaluating the non-thermal damage potential of cables used the Factory Mutual Research Corporation’s (FMRC) 50 kW-scale flammability apparatus to evaluate ignition and flame spread characteristics as well as yields of products. 

This device subjects a vertically oriented sample to radiant heating and a controlled flow of gas at the component sample. The composition of the effluent is analyzed to determine chemical composition, which is used to determine corrosive properties and DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood heat release rate. The separation of chemical product distributions and fire properties allows for a more detailed understanding of the factors that contribute to corrosive damage. 

Figure 3 shows the HCl yields(g/g) relative to HCl concentrations (g/m3) in the effluent stream for a selection of PVC cable insulation materials. The weak correlation between the two data sets is a result of the burning rate of the fuels and DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood the dynamic nature of this test method. The forced flow ensures a relatively constant mass flow of air, while the mass release rate of HCl depends on the burning rate of the material. 

Thus, materials rich in chlorine will produce relatively low concentrations in the gas phase if they burn slowly. Further, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood the flame propagation rates are seen to play a key role in determining the amount of fuel that will become involved before intervention occurs in a fire event. Again, a chlorine rich material may prove to be less of a corrosion hazard than a material with only modest chlorine levels if it is less flammable. 

This illustrates the importance of considering the interaction of a complete range of physical behavior when determining the meaning of a parameter such as chlorine concentration.The prevalence of corrosive compounds in telecommunications fires is often a result of halogenated compounds used as solid fire retardants and DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood gaseous suppression agents.

When fires involving these compounds do occur, significant quantities of the hydrogen halides and halogen radicals may be released along with the other products of combustion. Therefore, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood the use of these compounds to reduce the risk of a fire may carry with it the potential to increase the severity of non-thermal damage caused by any fire that does develop [24].

A commonly identified corrosive reaction is that of hydrogen chloride with zinc. [21,22] This has been observed in a number of fires, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood because of the prevalence of galvanized (zinc coated)steel in HVAC systems as well as support structures in electronic equipment. The solid zinc chloride adheres well enough to the base metal that it poses little direct hazard to electronics.

However, the ZnCl2 is extremely hygroscopic, DIY Removing Smoke Damage From Wood being able to absorb water in relative humidity as low as 10 %. The ZnCl2 is very conductive and can easily flow or drip onto nearby electronics,causing circuit bridging.

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Second, although self-healing does occur in the conductive polymer due to degradation of the polymer's conductivity at high temperatures, this self-healing mechanism is not thought to be as effective as the self healing mechanism of MnO2-based tantalum capacitors. Decomposition of the conductive pol  read more..

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The maximum optical density, Dm, is used primarily in ranking the relative smoke production of a material and in identifying likely sources of severe smoke production. Concerns with the test include the relatively low heat flux exposure, vertical sample mounting, and Smoke Damage Classifications Of Smoke Damage oxygen supply wit  read more..

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