Smoke Damage >> Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures

Recommendations for the Selection and Use of Protective Clothing and Respirators Against Biological Agents Resulting from a Suspected or Known Terrorism Event The recommendations for personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection and protective clothing, are based upon the anticipated level of exposure risk associated with different response situations, Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures as follows: 

Responders should use a NIOSH-approved, CBRN SCBA in conjunction with a Level A, protective ensemble (use equipment certified to NFPA 1991 when available as a first choice) in responding to a suspected biological incident where any of the following information is unknown or Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures the event is uncontrolled.

The type(s) of airborne agent(s);o The dissemination method(s);o If dissemination via an aerosol-generating device still is occurring, Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures or it has stopped but there is no information on the duration of dissemination or what the exposure concentration might be; Other conditions may present a vapor or splash hazard. 

Responders may use a Level B protective ensemble (use equipment certified to NFPA 1994 Class 2, NFPA 1992, or NFPA 1971 CBRN protective ensembles when available as a first choice) with an exposed or Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures enclosed NIOSH-certified CBRN SCBA if the situation can be defined in which: The suspected biological aerosol is no longer being generated.

Other conditions may present additional hazards, such as a splash hazard. (Note: NFPA 1994 Class 4 does not have a requirement to provide limited protection against liquid or Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures chemical hazards). Responders may use a level C protective ensemble (use equipment certified to NFPA 1994 class 3 or 4 or certified as NFPA 1999 protective ensemble when available as a first choice) with a CBRN full face piece APR or CBRN full face piece powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) when it can be determined that.

The suspected biological aerosol is no longer being generated; The biological agent and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures hazard level have been defined;o Dissemination was by a letter or package that can be easily bagged.When a risk assessment has been conducted by qualified safety and health experts, responders may use alternate PPE.

Including non-CBRN level C protective ensembles with a full facepiece particulate respirator (N100 or P100 filters) or PAPR with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, in conjunction with disposable hooded coveralls, gloves, and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures foot coverings as appropriate.In certain specialized situations.

Half-mask filtering facepiece respirators in conjunction with reduced levels of dermal protection may be considered, Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures but it should be recognized that this level of PPE may not provide sufficient exposure reduction for many situations. Several parameters must be assessed when making a decision to downgrade the ensemble. 

These include knowledge of the source and extent of contamination, the level of uncertainty in the risk assessment, specific activities to be conducted, investigator experience, Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures contingency/backup plans, length of time in the contaminated area, provision for immunization and post-exposure prophylaxis, etc. 

A decision of this nature should be carefully evaluated and made by industrial hygiene, safety, and medical personnel in conjunction with the incident commander and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures other appropriate public health authorities. NIOSH recommends against wearing standard firefighter turnout gear into potentially contaminated areas when responding to reports of terrorist activities involving biological agents, provided there are no other hazards that would require turnout gear.

Proper decontamination of protective equipment and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures clothing will ensure that any particles that might have settled on the outside of protective equipment are removed before taking off gear. Decontamination sequences currently used for hazardous material emergencies should be used as appropriate for the level of protection employed and agent encountered. 

For example, PPE can be decontaminated using soap and water, Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures and 0.5% hypochlorite solution (one part household bleach to 10 parts water) with an appropriate contact time can be used. Note that bleach may damage some types of firefighter turnout gear (one reason why it should not be used for biological agent response actions). 

After taking off gear, Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures response workers should shower using copious quantities of soap and water. Bleach should not be used to decontaminate response workers. Note that all NFPA 1994 ensembles are intended to be disposable after a single exposure use.

This document was prepared by the staff of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) with input from the Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Les Boord, Director, NIOSH National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) had overall responsibility for the document.

William Haskell (NIOSH) was the project director.The following Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures contributors are acknowledged: John Decker (NIOSH), Nadia ElAyouby (NIOSH), Debra Flagg (EPA), Robert Koedam (NIOSH), Andrew Levinson(OSHA), Angie Shepherd (NIOSH), Judi Coyne (NIOSH) and Bruce Teele (NFPA).

The members of the InterAgency Board (IAB)—Personal Protective & Operational Equipment (PP&OE) Subgroup are acknowledged for their expertise and guidance inthe development of this document.The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are acknowledged for endorsing the need for this document to aid emergency responders.

Vanessa Becks provided editorial support and contributed to the design, graphics, and layout of this document. This Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures guidance document provides local, State and Federal emergency response entities with comparison information on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration/Environmental Protection Agency (OSHA/EPA) 

Protection Levels A, B, and C to Department of Homeland Security (DHS) adopted Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures performance based standards for response to terrorism incidents involving Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) hazards Definitions CBRN: An abbreviation for chemicals, biological agents, and radiological particulate hazards.

CBRN terrorism agents: Chemicals, biological agents, and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures radiological particulates that could be potentially released as an act of terrorism. (See Chemical Terrorism Agents, Biological Terrorism Agents, Radiological Particulate Terrorism Agents).

Chemical terrorism agents: Liquid, solid, gaseous, and vapor chemical warfare agents and Fire Smoke Restoration Procedures industrial chemicals used to inflict lethal or incapacitating casualties as a result of a terrorist attack. Biological terrorism agents: Liquid or particulate agents that can consist of a biologically-derived toxin or pathogen used to inflict lethal or incapacitating causalities as aresult of a terrorist attack.

The Dangers Of Raw Sewage

Establish temperature control to enhance the evaporation rate and effectiveness of ventilation or dehumidification systems in use. All solid waste must be collected and discarded. Use dehumidifiers, fans, window air conditioners and open windows to aid in the drying process when available. Exchange   read more..

Water Damage Restoration For Electronics

Second, although self-healing does occur in the conductive polymer due to degradation of the polymer's conductivity at high temperatures, this self-healing mechanism is not thought to be as effective as the self healing mechanism of MnO2-based tantalum capacitors. Decomposition of the conductive pol  read more..

Exterior Lead Based Paint Removal

How often should my blood lead level be checked? Blood lead level (BLL) describes the amount of lead in the blood, measured in micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL).The typical BLL for U.S. adults is less than 10 µg/dL. The New York State Department of Health recommends that:An initial blood lead t  read more..

How To Start A Debris Removal Business

The Grantee will provide funds to the Subgrantee in accordance with Federal and State requirements. The Grantee will ensure that Subgrantees understand and adhere to Federal procurement requirements as well as other requirements of 44 CFR Part 13, 2 CFR Part 215, and the appropriate Office of Manage  read more..

Remove Fire Smoke Smell From Clothes

This section addresses the use of masks and respirators by the public and workers to reduce inhalation of wildfire smoke, specifically harmful particles. Use of the term "mask" in this context may cause confusion for both public health officials and the general public, as it can refer to one-strap p  read more..


Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma After malignant mesothelioma has been diagnosed, Asbestos Abatement Mesothelioma tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other p  read more..

Dust From Removing Lead Paint

Get Ahead of Lead! Encapsulants: A Teachnique to Control Lead Paint Hazards A complete copy of the Get Ahead of Lead! Encapsulants: A Technique to Control Lead Paint Hazards brochure is available in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF, 175 KB). Lead-based paint is a health hazard to children and adu  read more..

Roofing Removal Tips

Assess weight-based rather than volume based payment for debris collection and investigate whether such systems could be efficiently linked to debris payment accounting systems. Management Comments and OIG Analysis FEMA generally concurs with all of these recommendations, but notes that the Age  read more..

Determine The Size For A Dehumidifier

Reverse osmosis, alternatively, is based on membrane technology. Using a high-pressure pump, seawater is forced to flow through a membrane. The membrane only allows freshwater to pass while filtering out the dissolved minerals. Freshwater is produced as a result of this filtering with any previously  read more..

New Health Dangers From Lead

New Health Dangers from Lead, Levels of lead once thought harmless now shown to be toxic. If you work with lead you need to: Find out how much lead is in your blood. Talk to your doctor about lead and your health. Take steps to protect yourself at work. What health damage can low Lead Paint Removal New Health Dangers From Lead levels of  read more..