Smoke Damage >> How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish

In the early 1990s, a number of tests using direct measures of corrosion were developed. In addition to the CNET test, the cone corrosimeter and the traveling furnace tests were developed.An additional direct test was developed by the ASTM E 05.21.70 committee but it was eventually How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish withdrawn. 

Because the ASTM E 05.21.70 developed test figures prominently in the literature it will also be discussed in this section. In this section, test methods for corrosion will be described and How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish analyzed. Recent research concluded that the largest risk to electrical circuits during a fire incident in NPPs is due to bridging of circuits [11]. 

While this is a serious issue, it has yet to garner much attention in the fire protection community. The last subsection will address how well existing corrosion tests do to predict bridging and what correlations may or may not exist between other fire tests for wire and How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish cable. Indirect Methods All the standards for indirect methods of analysis to be described share a basic framework. 

The effluent from a burning sample is bubbled through some liquid to capture gases. The liquid is then analyzed and the properties reported. The acidity of the effluent is considered important,and because corrosion is an electro-chemical process, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish the conductivity of the liquid is often also considered. There are two types of indirect tests, one specific to halogenated acids and a second,general type that looks at pH and conductivity. 

Indirect methods can only address ASTM requirements [60] 1, 2, 9 and 10 directly. While correlations with damage, a strong theoretical understanding, and modeling capability could possibly make indirect methods the preferred test methods, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish currently such correlations and understanding do not exist. For this reason indirect methods have fallen out of favor as a tool to help address corrosion of fire effluent. 

Tests for Halogenated Gases: IEC 60754-1 and EN 50267-2-1 Based on experience with real fires, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish halogenated plastics and halogens in general have been recognized as an important cause of corrosion. For that reason, there are a number of standards that focus on strength of the halogenated acids other than fluoric acid. 

They do this by using a chemical titration method that is specific to halogens instead of the general pH of a solution. IEC 60754-1 [62] and EN 50267-2-1 [63], both essentially the same standard, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish determine the generation rate of halogenated acid produced by a test sample. The standard states that for accuracy this method should not be used for samples containing less than 5 mg/g equivalent of HCl. 

Values are reported as the equivalent milligrams of HCl produced by 1 g of the sample. A test sample of 500 mg to 1000 mg is heated in a tube furnace at a uniform rate for 40 minutes until the sample’s temperature is 800 ºC (1472 ºF). It is then kept at that temperature for 20 minutes of the actual How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish test. 

A constant airflow is supplied to the furnace and then bubbled through two wash bottles of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH). After the solution has cooled it istitrated using a wet chemistry method specifically meant to determine the amount of halogenacid in the solution and How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish the results are transformed into an equivalent HCl mg/g production rate. 

Tests for pH and Conductance: IEC 60754-2, EN 50267-2-2 and EN 50267-2-3The more general pH tests are generally the same as for the halogenated gases except that the analysis is done with a general pH method and an additional test is done to measure the conductance of the solution.IEC 60754-2 [64], EN 50267-2-2 [65] and EN 50267-2-3 [66] use the same test apparatus as the halogenated gases, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish but the effluent is bubbled through two wash bottles of 450 mL of deionized water. 

The furnace is set to at least 935 C (1715 ºF) and run for only 30 minutes with no initial heating phase unlike the halogenated version of the test. At the conclusion of combustion, IEC 60754-2 and EN 50267-2-2 combine the wash bottles and How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish test the pH and conductivity using appropriate equipment. 

The values of two replicates are averaged and reported. Annex A of EN 50267-2-2 recommends that if the pass/fail criteria is not specified, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish the average pH should be greater than 4.3 and the conduction should be less than 10 S/mm.For EN 50267-2-3, the reporting is different. Each material component of a cable or other application is tested with three replicates. 

The mean and standard deviation are determined and if the relative standard deviation is larger than 0.05, an additional three replicates are done and How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish the mean and standard deviation of all six is used. Next the weight per unit of length for each component is measured and the weighted pH is calculated using where the weight of the component and pH is the pH for that component. 

The weighted conductance is calculated usingܿ where ciis the conductance for the ith component. Direct Methods Direct methods test the effect of fire effluent directly on test samples. The push for direct fire corrosion tests How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish comes from observation that fires can generate corrosive atmospheres even if they do not generate acid gases [67, 68]. 

While polymers containing halogens and producing acidgases such as HCl or HBr have been shown to cause extensive corrosion damage, many other materials such as woods, wool and polymers that contain nitrogen have also been shown to cause corrosion damage, at times worse than halogenated acids, while not producing halogenated orHow To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish any other type of acids [69]. 

Besides measuring the corrosion caused by smoke, a second difference between indirect methods and direct methods is that direct methods can also determine the time dependent aspect of corrosion including the impact that may occur hours, How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish .

Plastics -- Smoke generation -- Determination of the How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish corrosivity of fire effluents -- Part 3: Dynamic decomposition method using a travelling furnace The traveling furnace test uses an annular furnace that has a 100 mm (3.9 in) exposure area. The furnace is set up using a 1 m quartz glass tube with an outer diameter of 40 mm 1 mm and awall thickness of 2 mm 0.5 mm. 

The test sample is placed in a quartz glass cuvette that is 400mm 10 mm long and 15 mm 1 mm high with a wall thickness of 1.7 mm 0.2 mm. The test sample preparation differs depending on the type of material but it approximately fills the cuvette.The test probe is the same as the one used for the CNET tests and How To Clean An Oven After Using A Fire Extinguish like the CNET tests is mountedon a water cooled specimen holder to enhance condensation. It is placed so the center of theprobe is 200 mm (7.9 in) from the downstream end of the test sample cuvette.

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