Smoke Damage >> How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses

In a secondary test procedure, the smoke-contaminated electronic counters were subjected to high humidity while powered. The less contaminated of the two exhibited no loss of functionality, while the other failed after an unknown amount of time in a 95 % humidity environment. It was determined that the presence of particulates and moisture had resulted in leakage currents How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses sufficient to blow a fuse in the device. 

Removal of contaminants from two locations restored functionality.The most prevalent acid gas released during NPP fires is likely to be Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) since it can be released in significant amounts from burning PVC-containing cables. Active measurements of chloride ions in exhaust ventilation were significantly below expected values, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses while concentrations in soot deposits were quite high. 

The theory presented to explain this phenomenon is that the majority of chloride ions were absorbed by smoke particulates in the time it takes for them to reach the exhaust vents. The exhaust ventilation system included a particulate filter upstream of the chloride ion measurement system, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses thus any ions absorbed by soot would not be measured. 

It is thought that this phenomenon had not been encountered in previous work because of the relatively short time scales associated with small scale tests, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses which would not allow a significant amount of ion absorption.2.1.3 Smoke Exposure Testing Beginning in 1996, SNL performed a large number of smoke exposure experiments for the NRC.

In order to create the greatest level on consistency and repeatability, all of these tests used a single smoke generation and How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses exposure method loosely based on the withdrawn draft ASTM International (ASTM) E05.21.70 corrosivity measurement standard 2. In this method, fuel samples are exposed to unpiloted ignition by radiant heat (usually at 50 kW/m2) and the products of combustion are trapped in an enclosed volume containing the components to be tested. 

When possible, the original ASTM E05.21.70 chamber, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses consisting of a single combustion furnace supplying a 0.2 m3(7.1 ft3) enclosure, was used. For components larger than the original exposure chamber, a larger, 1 m3(35.3 ft3) enclosure supplied by four combustion furnaces was used. 

Unlike the draft standard, which specified fuel packages in terms of surface area and volume, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses the fuel loads for these tests were chosen by weight, in order to produce controlled masses of smoke per unit volume in the chamber. Humidity and temperature were kept at 75 %relative humidity (RH) and 23.9 ºC (75 ºF) before and after exposure. 

The exposure periodlasted for a total of one hour, with the combustion chambers being active for the first 15 minutes.The chamber includes an optical transmission measurement system, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses which uses a constant flow of nitrogen to prevent soot deposition onto its optical surfaces. In some tests, this system was deactivated out of concern that the dry nitrogen would artificially lower the humidity of the chamber.

The fuel loads used in these tests were mixtures of a variety of cables that had been identified as being in use in NPPs. To the extent possible, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses the weight fraction of each cable variety was selected to match frequency of its usage, to create smoke that would generally represent the state of the industry.The remainder of this section describes testing which used this exposure method. 

Early Digital Equipment Testing for NPP Applications As digital electronic devices continue to supplant their analog predecessors in NPPs, it becomes necessary to evaluate the ability of the new equipment to perform required monitoring and How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses safety operations while exposed to adverse conditions. A broad study on the impact of environmental conditions on digital systems used in NPPs included an evaluation of smoke effects. 

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses SNL subjected an Experimental Digital Safety Channel(EDSC) to various smoke loads to monitor its functionality [17]. The EDSC is a network ofcomputers and communication devices for monitoring and controlling a nuclear reactor.
Exposure tests were performed on individual components of the EDSC while they werefunctioning and communicating with the EDSC. 

The behavior of the entire system wasmonitored for possible failure modes during and How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses after exposure. Due to the size of the EDSCcomponents, the larger 1 m3chamber was used.Three components of the EDSC were exposed to smoke (see Figure 1): the Process MultiplexingUnit (PRS/MUX), the Digital Trip Computer (DTC) and the fiber-optic serial datalinks to andfrom the DTC, termed a Fiber-Optic Module (FOM). 

The PRS/MUX served to convert a number of distinct analog electrical signals into a single optical digital signal to be transmitted on the Fiber Distributed Data Interchange (FDDI) ring. The DTC interprets optical digital system measurement information from the PRS/MUX and How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses transmits optical digital trip (reactorshutdown) signals to the Host Processor (HOSTP). 

Based on previous work, nominal smoke loads of 3 g/m3, 20 g/m3, and 160 g/m3were used toreplicate predicted fire conditions. In order to approximate environmental conditions created bysuppression activities, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses some tests introduced steam or CO2. The introduction of 34 g of steam immediately after the burning of the fuel raised the relative humidity in the chamber to 85 %.

The limited number of tests and the re-use of equipment make it difficult to draw strong conclusions from the results of these tests. No single combination of conditions and equipment was tested more than once, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses nor were all possible conditions tested. It was noted that pieces of equipment that had been exposed to smoke were no longer able to function without error in asmoke-free environment, despite having been cleaned after each test. 

As a result it is difficult todistinguish between new and existing damage in the second, third and fourth tests of items. In most smoke tests (and some baseline tests after initial smoke exposure), a minor communication error requiring that the DTC retransmit data to the HOSTP was recorded. The exact cause of this error was not conclusively determined, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses although it was suspected that infiltration of particulates into fiber-optic connections or circuit bridging by particulates was to blame.

In two tests, the PRS/MUX was exposed to both smoke and high RH. In both cases, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses the previously mentioned DTC retransmission error occurred. In the case of low smoke density(3 g/m2) no other errors manifested. However, during higher smoke density (20 g/m2), thevoltage signals transmitted by the PRS/MUX deviated from those given to it as inputs. 

No cause for this behavior is stated explicitly, but circuit bridging is implied.In one DTC test and in the FOM test, timeout errors between the HOSTP and DTC occurred on three data link channels. In both cases, How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses it appeared that circuit bridging on edge connectors caused the failure. In the FOM test, orientation (vertical or horizontal) had no observable impact on failure. 

The FOMs were exposed to three fuel packages (2.43 g, 15.45 g and 46.42 g) in succession without venting the chamber or How To Clean Smoke Damaged Houses cleaning components. Both failures occurred onehour after the 2.43 g burn, and during the 15.45 g burn.

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