Smoke Damage >> How To Clean Up After Fire Damage

The correlation is even stronger than just by the day of test. Because each test had a 250 nm probe and a 4500 nm probe, the test-to-test correlation was strong as seen in Figure 11. The strength of the correlation seems to reinforce the variability in the performance of the material and not just uncertainty in the How To Clean Up After Fire Damage test measurement. 

Some possible explanations are offered in Appendix B. There is an issue with pitting that can overestimate the total corrosion of the effluent. This effect is increased with the use of the How To Clean Up After Fire Damage thinner probe. That would seem to account for the fact that 250 nm probes consistently read a higher level of corrosion. The other issue with the corrosimeter is that the hybrid dynamic/static nature of testing makes it sensitive to differences and variability of HRR between materials and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage tests. 

The strong correlation with the day the test was run has no clear explanation. It implies that some variable that was not accounted for changed between the two days, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage but it is impossible to tell from the paper. Grand [87] first discussed using a modified version of the NIST cup furnace used for toxicity testing [88, 89] as a test method for both corrosion and toxicity testing. 

The apparatus is able to determine an ignition time, rate of smoke evolution, total amount of smoke produced, and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage characterization of the smoke in terms of either toxicity or corrosivity. The test method's flexibility in fire conditions as well as it being a closed system were listed as its key advantages.

In 1991, Grand [90] proposed a modified version of the original proposed test focusing on corrosion. A copper probe using resistance to measure metal loss was added to the system. The system was tested with six plastics: How To Clean Up After Fire Damage Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) Ethylene-vinyl acetate with fire retardant using red phosphorus (FR-EVA) Low density polyethylene (LDPE) 

Low density polyethylene with fire retardant using red phosphorus (FR-6400) Polyethylene with fire retardant using bromine (PE165) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC).These tests were run using both 25 kW/m2and 50 kW/m2, irradiating the samples for 15 minutes in each test. The tests generated the expected results with PVC, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage clearly the worst material in both total metal lost and the rate of metal loss. 

The PE165 was a distant second and the pure EVA and LDPE were the best. Grand also showed that humidity increased the corrosion rate and total corrosion, as theory and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage experience predict [87]. Grand also showed time histories of the amount of metal lost in different tests. The utility of this information is clear from the very different shapes of the curves from different test materials.

Some materials had a relatively high rate of corrosion that slowly decreased over time while other How To Clean Up After Fire Damage materials caused short but very rapid loss of material before sharply changing to a much slower rate of loss so that they looked almost like step functions.Grand summarized the development of the radiant panel test [91]. 

He argues that the radiant panel test is flexible and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage useful for characterizing the corrosivity of a material's effluent. He lists five advantages of this system, which include: Flexible combustion conditions Capturing all fire effluent from the test Multiple corrosion probes can be placed in the large test chamber 

The method has proven an ability to distinguish between different polymer materials Products can be tested in their end use. Grand also identified a number of fundamental research issues that needed to be addressed for all corrosion testing and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage not just the radiant panel. They included: The response of resistance probes to hot, moist clean atmospheres 

The repeatability of resistance probe measurements The response of resistance probes to known quantities of known corrosive agents The impact of orientation and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage exposure time on measurements The importance of using metals besides copper in resistance probes.The PFPC also studied the radiant furnace test [73]. 

They found that the test differentiated between different types of polymers. The main concern expressed was the repeatability of the test. For a single material, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage they had three tests in which metal loss was between 15 … and 30 …,two with metal loss between 30 … and 120 … and one with metal loss measured at 784 …. 

Even excluding the 784 … case, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage the standard deviation was very high with a mean of 170 … ± 303 …including the 784 … case, and 47 …± 42 … excluding it. A gas analysis found that the minimum oxygen concentration was high enough to be assured that combustion was not oxygen limited. 

Looking at sample size, they found that increasing the mass did not increase the corrosion that occurred by the same factor. They also found that seven out of nine of the smaller samples didn't seem to reach flaming combustion, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage but weight loss data showed a significant amount of decomposition did occur.

Finally, because some of the test materials were able to corrode the 2500 … probe beyond itsmaximum measurement capability, they also used probes of 25,000 … copper foil. There seemedto be a linear relationship between the thicknesses of probes and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage corrosivity. They theorized that the copper foil had fewer lattice defects than the dc magnetron sputter-formed 2500 … probes they used for all other tests. 

They note as described in Appendix B that increased pitting would significantly change the resistance even though little metal had actually been lost. As mentioned before, Hirschler and Smith [67] showed that all fires are corrosive and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage that it is not just acid gases that cause the corrosion. In this work that was originally presented in the October 1987 '

Corrosive Effects of Combustion Products' conference in London, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage the results of a number of experiments were shown. The work exposed steel coupons and copper mirrors in an ASTM E662 "NBS Smoke Density Chamber" to the effluent of a number of products for an hour and then weighed the amount of material that was lost to corrosion.

While they did test copper mirrors, How To Clean Up After Fire Damage the primary focus of the work was the corrosion of steel.They were able to test the corrosivity of the same products in a number of environmental conditions. Corrosion of steel was measured by determining the amount of steel left after the exposure period. Two chamber temperature conditions were used, near ambient, and heated to between 100 C (212 F) and 110 C (230 F). 

In the near ambient tests, one coupon was placed on a bag of ice to enhance condensation. For the cases where the chamber was heated, one coupon was placed on a hot plate and How To Clean Up After Fire Damage warmed to 550 C (1022 F). Both test series had three untreated coupons in each test as well as a coupon that was pretreated with machine oil. 

Two of the three untreated coupons were treated a day later to simulate cleaning. All tests used a highhumidity environment.

Do It Yourself Mold Mitigation

If abatement procedures are expected to generate a lot of dust (e.g., abrasive cleaning of contaminated surfaces, demolition of plaster walls) or the visible concentration of the mold is heavy (blanket coverage as opposed to patchy), Mold Remediation Do It Yourself Mold Mitigation it is recommended that the remediation procedures for Le  read more..

Pennsylvania OSHA Regulations On Crime Scene Clean

Many of the issues raised by commenters who disagreed with the Agency's approach to the "Scope of the Standard" related to coverage of workplaces where employees provide service to individuals who are not members of groups known to be at increased risk for HIV or Crime Scene Cleanup Pennsylvania OSHA Regulations On Crime Scene Clean HBV infection. 

  read more..

Hurricane Safety Procedures

The contractor must submit drawings to DCAM through the Department or Agency for approval of any windows or openings to be sealed by any method other than that shown in sketches listed in number 1 above.9. For windows over 48 inches wide or 96 inches in height, the contractor must submit drawings to  read more..

Mold Remediation

Standing water is a breeding ground for a wide range of micro-organisms and insects, such as mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can spread diseases like West Nile Virus. Micro-organisms, including bacteria and mold, can become airborne and be inhaled. Where floodwater is highly infected, infectious diseas  read more..

Sewage Cleanup

There are many ways to control moisture in your home, fix leaks and Water Extraction Sewage Cleanup. If water is entering the house from the outside, your options range from simple landscaping to extensive excavation and waterproofing. (The ground should slope away from the house.) Water in the basement can result from   read more..

Sewage Cleanup

Occasionally there are homeowners that complain about Odor Control Sewage Cleanup from their onsite sewage backup. Although many people understand that sewage cleanup has a particular odor, there are steps that can be taken to limit these sewer odors in the home and yard. Gases from an onsite cleanup could be a pro  read more..

How To Fix A Wet Crawl Space From Mold

Set your home's thermostat at the coolest level you can without making your rooms uncomfortable. For most homes, the heating bill drops by about 2 percent for every 1 degree the thermostat is lowered. Crawl Space Drying How To Fix A Wet Crawl Space From Mold Lower your home's thermostat at bedtime or while you're away during the day.     read more..

How Long Should A Dehumidifier Run Per Day

Unit(s) shall be capable and designed for year-round, 24-hours-a-day operation; and requiring only connections of ducts, utilities, and remote sensors, controllers, Dehumidification How Long Should A Dehumidifier Run Per Day and monitors. 3. Unit(s) shall include active regeneration system for control of dehumidification processes.    read more..

What To Do During A Sewer Backup

What to do during a sewer backup Immediate actions If sewage is flowing out of floor drains, toilets,sinks, etc., place rags in or over the backup to stop or reduce the flow; secure the rags in place with a sandbag, kitty litter etc. Wash hands and all body parts with soap and Sewage Cleanup What To Do During A Sewer Backup water t  read more..

Remove The Smell Of Smoke Damage

The particular characteristics of soot and the way it bonds to surfaces indicate that vacuuming and other dry-surface-cleaning methods are the first lines of defense in soot removal. Wet-cleaning can be less successful, particularly if the unique characteristics of soot are not taken into  read more..