Smoke Damage >> How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor

Saitoh and Inukai contend that humidity is probably the most important factor in determining the amount of corrosion that occurs [80]. They also note that the combustion gases from materials such as wood and asphalt that are not expected to produce HCl still produce corrosion. They surmise the presence of other gases besides HCl, which questions the value of test methods that only look for HCl or How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor specific halogen acids.

Both IEC 60754-1 and EN 50267-2-1 do not specifically test for the presence of HF. Sandmann and Widmer [81] looked at the effect of fluoride on stainless steel. They found that the fluoride containing compounds tested were very stable thermally. They also found that even when the compounds did give off fluoride, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor the resulting effluent was significantly less corrosive than other halogens like chloride (except for a single test with carbon steel as the target). 

They noted that HF was significantly less corrosive to copper and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor silver than HCl was. This seems to contradict Tewarson [19] where HF was found to be significantly more corrosive than HCl. The difference may arise from the target being used for measurement, the method of measurement or the actual environments and possible all three. 

Tewarson used a steel probe that was put in a solution of the fire effluent in water and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor measured the corrosion using change in resistance. Perhaps the only conclusion to be drawn is that test conditions can significantly impact observed corrosion. The CNET test has existed in some form since at least 1983 [82]. 

It is used as a comparison standard and as such is discussed as it relates to other tests, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor but there is little work that focused directly on the standard. Rio and O'Neill [59] described the test and presented test data for 12 materials that have corrosion values ranging from near 0 % increase in resistance to close to 15%. 

They define the repeatability qualitatively as "reasonable.” The PFPC study used the CNET test as one of its four standards for comparison [76]. They found that the test method did not differentiate the materials particularly well. One modification of the How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor test method that was used was to add 100 g of polyethylene (PE) to the 600 g of test material to ensure complete combustion. 

Even with the PE, they found that the completeness of combustion How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor and variation in the percent of mass combusted is significant. One possible source for the problem of complete combustion was the three minute heating cycle, which was deemed to be too short. They noted that weight loss seemed to stop for most materials at the end of the three minute period. 

They also found that for the test probe specified in the CNET test, the risk of bridging between the conductor lines was significant. They showed pictures of two probes after tests that seemed to show some bridging occurring. They also had two tests where the resistance didn't increase but decreased, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor indicating significant bridging had occurred. 

Finally, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor only two of the 24 test materials were found to be statistically more corrosive than the rest.There is little in the literature about the traveling furnace test used as a smoke corrosivity test.The apparatus has been extensively used and studied in the toxicity test as part of DIN 53436.

Prager et al. [83] and Prager [84] evaluated the test method in DIN 53436, the traveling furnace,and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor found that it could properly simulate smoldering and flaming fires. Its utility is demonstrated by its use to collect fire test data on toxicity in developing a significant life-cycle assessment model [85]. Barth et al. [86] concluded that the traveling furnace could also be used for corrosion testing. 

It is seen to have a number of positive attributes including control of combustion for both flaming and smoldering fires. It can generate a relatively constant smoke stream over an extended period or a dynamically changing smoke stream and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor the composition can be characterized at different times during combustion.

Ryan et al. [68] suggested using the cone calorimeter to resolve several problems they found with other test methods they analyzed. First they wanted to address the ASTM E05.21.71 task group's criteria for a bench-scale corrosion test, second, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor include standard samples of electronic components and circuits, and finally, to include the effect of corrosion on metal loss, circuit bridging, and degradation of electrical contacts. 

They considered a number of options including using a single chamber for combustion and exposure or dual chambers, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor using flow-through or closed design and other design parameters. The design they discussed is broadly similar to the standardized cone corrosimeter design, but is significantly different in details. 

The design purposed used a syringe style extraction method in the duct above the exhaust fan of the cone.The exposure chamber was completely closed. The actual standard as described before has a hybrid open/closed system that draws effluent above the cone radiator, How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor but below the exhaust fan.The PFPC ran tests using a development version of the cone corrosimeter [78]. 

The most significant difference between the test method used by PFPC and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor the one in the standard is the rate of airflow. The stated airflow the PFPC used was 0.024 m3/s, which is 320 times the 0.000075 m3/s in the ASTM cone corrosimeter standard and would cause an air change of 0.0112 m3in less than 0.5 s. 

There is no way to determine what airflow rate was actually used from the papers. It is possible they used 0.024 L/s, which would be 0.000024 m3/s, much closer to the standardized value. In the PFPC tests, both 2500 … and 45000 … probes were used and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor tests were conducted at both 25 kW/m2 and 50 kW/m2. 

The PFPC tests found a number of difficulties with the cone corrosimeter tests. Their first observation was that a brominated polyethylene was found to be less corrosive than three different materials containing fillers.Several samples bubbled out of the sample pan and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor invalidated the tests, which they felt needed to be corrected. 

Finally, they found a number of problems with the measurements the test provided. Most of the difficulties came from using the four separate measurement scenarios recommended in the annex of the standard. The standard doesn't specify a particular heat flux and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor it doesn't specify a thickness of target but suggests using the 250 nm (2500 …) probe and/or the 4500 nm(45 000 …) probe and fluxes of either 25 kW/m2or 50 kW/m2. 

The PFPC study used both probes together in test series at each flux level and found that there was a significant lack of consistency in the four scenarios. They made six runs with the 6th specimen material, three on one day and How To Clean Up Cigarette Smoke Odor three on another day. They found that the repeatability was poor and that, interestingly, the results were strongly correlated by the day of test as can be seen in Figure 10.

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