Smoke Damage >> How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall

Smoke Production and Transport Butler and Mulholland give a very good synopsis of the generation and transport of smoke components [112]. They present the current state of knowledge about smoke aerosol phenomena that affect smoke toxicity: soot generation, fractal structure of soot, agglomerate transport via thermophores is, sedimentation, diffusion, agglomerate growth through coagulation and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall condensation.

The potential of the aerosols to transport adsorbed or absorbed toxic gases or vapors into the lungs. The phenomena that affect smoke toxicity do or How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall may play a role in the non-thermal damage of equipment due to smoke exposure except transport of absorbed or absorbed toxic gases or vapors into the lungs. 

The analog to transport of absorbed or adsorbed toxic gases or vapors into the lungs is transport of absorbed or adsorbed corrosive gases or vapors onto electrical conductors, How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall so their discussions on absorption and adsorption are relevant here. They include tables of measured smoke yields and aerodynamic particle sizes, equations and references for the smoke agglomerate transport properties and wall loss.

They conclude that the quality of fire hazard and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall risk assessment with regard to toxicants in smoke would be improved by conducting research in the following areas: Measurement of mass median aerodynamic diameter of soot agglomerates avoiding possible agglomerate structural changes with impactors. 

Quantitative information on the adsorption of irritant gases on fire generated soot aerosol. Quantitative information on the losses of toxicants to walls for a range of realistic fires. Development of model for predicting smoke aerosol and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall vapor loss to the walls for a fire in an enclosure. Information on the size distribution of water droplets at fires, the conditions under which they are formed, and the amount of gases adsorbed on the droplets. 

Understanding the role of nanoparticles on the toxic effect of How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall perfluoropolymer fumes. All but the last item would help facilitate or improve smoke transport fire modeling and the consequences of smoke exposures far from the fire room.The level of detail needed to describe smoke properties of interest depends on the effect of the smoke one wants to estimate. 

Light extinction can be estimated from the smoke concentration How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall and the specific extinction coefficient [113] while particle size distribution, fractal structure, and optical properties are needed for predicting light scattering from soot [114]. It is not clear what the important smoke properties are, and the concentrations, or deposition conditions that significantly affect electrical or electronic equipment failure.

At the moment, smoke generation is an empirical input for modeling purposes, with simple transport models and deposition models. Actually, smoke generation is a function of ventilation and thermal conditions for even pure materials. For complex fuels, combustion chemistry, gas chemistry, How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall and liquid chemistry all contribute to products that arrive on and may react with electrical and electronic equipment. 

Modeling Smoke Deposition FDS [103] includes a simple model for smoke deposition to provide a gross estimate of smoke particle losses. It lacks detailed physics to describe particle mass loading on How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall surfaces under specific conditions including gravitational settling. 

Typical forces acting on particles that may drive them to surfaces include diffusional forces (both Brownian motion and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall eddy diffusion), thermophoresis, inertial forces including gravitational settling, and electrical forces experienced by charged particles in electric fields and induced electrostatic forces between particles and nonconducting surfaces. 

In general, the dry deposition velocity characterizes the smoke mass deposition per unit area via the equation Flux Concentration (13)where Vds is the dry deposition velocity (m/s), How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall Flux is mass flux to the surface (g/m2.s), and Concentration is the mass concentration (g/m3). Thus, given a smoke mass concentration in the air next to a surface, the flux is the product of the concentration times the dry deposition velocity. 

Unfortunately, the dry deposition velocity is a function of all the forces acting on particles of a given size. Models have been proposed to estimate the dry deposition velocity of spherical particles of known size on semiconductor wafers [115,116]. Particles sized less than 0.1 m in diameter fall into the diffusion-controlled deposition regime, How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall where the deposition velocity increases with decreasing particle size. 

For vertically orientated surfaces, or horizontal face-down surfaces, the deposition velocity will continuously decrease as the particle size increases. For horizontal face-up surfaces, How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall a minimum in the dry deposition velocity is observed at about 0.2 m to 0.3 m, and then it rises due to gravitational sedimentation, yielding a valley shaped curve. 

A thermal gradient caused by a cooler surface than the surrounding fluid will increase the dry deposition velocity for all particle sizes, How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall while a thermal gradient due to a hotter surface will decrease the dry deposition velocity for all particle sizes. 

In principle, if all details of particle size, and charge, air and surface temperature, flow fields, electric fields, and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall surface orientation are known, the dry deposition velocity as a function of particle size could be computed. If the aerosol concentration and size distribution are known,then the total flux to the surface could be calculated from summation of the contributions from each particle size. 

Typically though, the particle size distribution is not properly tracked in fire models, nor is there a detailed model of dry deposition velocity of agglomerate particles based on a representative agglomerate size.5.3 Prediction of Equipment Damage It is speculated that the main failure mechanisms for electrical and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall electronic equipment from smoke exposure during a fire in a NPP are due to circuit bridging from smoke deposits [6,25].

There is no absolute correspondence between the change in surface insulation resistance from smoke exposure and the failure of any electronic or How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall electrical components. A relationship between surface insulation resistance from smoke deposition and the failure of real electronic circuits needs to be studied to establish correlations that could be used in probabilistic risk assessments. 

A smoke damage routine developed for a fire model could then assess the near term (during and soon after exposure) damage potential of electronics and electrical components due to smoke exposure. Fire models could provide inputs to a smoke damage estimates which would most likely include temperatures, humidity, flow fields, orientation, smoke concentration and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall properties. 

The smoke damage estimates could account the electronics or electrical component orientation, surface temperature, voltage potentials, and How To Clean Up Smoke Damage To Drywall identified susceptibilities.The complexity and uncertainty and simplification of model inputs suggest a sub-model based on physics and empirical correlations for the predicted effects and the probability of equipment failure.

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