Smoke Damage >> How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire

One of the corrosivity tests correlated well with one another or with the leakage current test. As such, it is difficult to draw any specific conclusions as to the quality of particular test. The lack of agreement between generally similar tests (such as ASTM and ISO) serves to illustrate the need to understand complex nature of corrosion phenomena in order to properly assess How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire the threat posed by smoke. 

While Chapin et al. [24] claim that circuit bridging is the most important factor in the failure of electronics, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire others have presented cases in which corrosion dominated equipment losses.2.3 Damage Criteria for Electronic Equipment Early reports on non-thermal damage to telecommunications were based on observations of the methods required to recover equipment from fire events. 

These reports categorize the level of damage to equipment based on the acid gas concentration on component surfaces. Both Tewarson and Reagor report that deposited mass of chloride can be a predictor of corrosive damage. However, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire the thresholds specified differ [20,21]. Reagor categorizes four levels of contamination by mass of chloride deposited per unit area.

Clean at less than 2 μg/cm2, easily cleaned and How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire recovered below 30 μg/cm2, difficult but possible to recover between 30 μg/cm2 And 90 μg/cm2, and above 90 μg/cm2 it is increasingly likely that the cost of cleaning the component will be greater than simply replacing it. 

Initially, Tewarson specified a minimum concentration of 0.98 μg/cm2 coupled with relative humidity greater than 30 % at 20 °C (68 °F) and How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire gas concentrations of 100 ppm HCl or 1000 ppm of NO2, HF, SO2 or acetic acid. In subsequent literature, Tewarson cites Reagor's criteria [28].

Tanaka and Tanaka et al. [18,29] studied failure criteria for digital logic circuits exposed to smoke. In order to evaluate the loss of functionality of the logic circuits, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire the loss of resistance due to smoke was simulated with a variable shunt circuit to determine the point of failure for a range of circuits. Components with a high tolerance to resistance loss are seen to be more tolerant to smoke exposure. 

Critical resistance at failure varied for different chips designs, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire but was highly correlated to the output current of the device. Higher current outputs were seen better able to supply the necessary current to maintain a voltage level despite the loss of resistance due to the shunt. MEASUREMENT OF SMOKE PRODUCTION

During the 1940s and the 1950s, flammability (or "reaction-to-fire") tests were developed on a purely ad hoc basis. Results were typically expressed by arbitrary 0 to 100 scales or How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire by such rating terms as "self-extinguishing. " In 1973, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission saw such practices as misleading and sued a number of plastics manufacturers and also the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) [30]. 

A consent agreement was eventually reached whereby a Bunsen burner test, ASTM D 1692, was dropped, and a caveat was inserted into other ASTM tests, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire in an attempt to avoid their future misuse. It is noteworthy that the situation in other countries is similar to the U.S. experience. More than thirty years ago, Emmons obtained the results of flammability tests on a number of materials, when tested according to various national, bench-scale flammability standards [31]. 

He found that the relationship between the test results and real-scale fire behavior according to the different standards was almost completely random. In 1987, –stman and Nussbaum re-examined this issue; the situation appears to have improved only slightly [32]. The reason is that the new knowledge gained in fire physics and How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire engineering over the last decades has generally not yet been reflected in many of the required testing standards.

This is due at least partly to the great number of national test methods that exist for fire testing.For example, one such compilation which includes only the ASTM fire test methods tabulates some 167 test standards covering a broad range of measurements. Based on this large number of tests, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire it may seem that fire test methods are highly refined and well tuned to specific areas. 

Though many of the currently published methods were developed up to 40 years ago, for smoke production and for most other fire test results, the focus has shifted to appropriate input data for predictive modeling methods. This chapter provides a review of both types of test methods use to quantify smoke production, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire those that primarily provide a ranking of materials,and those that provide quantitative input for modeling calculations.

Smoke Opacity Testing Typically, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire bench-scale test methods designed to measure the impact of fire smoke provide a measurement of opacity, an indication of visibility through the smoke. The most significant body of work in this area has been accomplished by Jin [34–36], who found that there is an approximate reciprocal relationship between smoke opacity and visibility distance (the distance at which a person can identify an exit sign, for example), according to kV = 2 (1) where k is the smoke extinction coefficient (m-1) and V is the visibility distance (m). 

Thus,measurement of smoke opacity or obscuration is useful in determining the ability to escape or perform needed action in a space during a fire incident. However, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire opacity is the result of the generation of the smoke and not a direct measure of its generation. Opacity results not only from the generation of smoke, but also from agglomeration and surface deposition during transport.

Still, there are a number of widely-used tests that measure smoke opacity. Smoke opacity tests are broadly categorized as either static tests (those in which the smoke generated is allowed to accumulate within the test enclosure) and How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire dynamic tests (those in which there is a continuous flow of gases resulting from combustion of the sample).

The Smoke Density Chamber (ASTM E 662) [37], is used widely in testing of materials.Outlined in Figure 5, How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire it is a static test that measures smoke generation from small, solid specimens exposed vertically to a radiant flux level of 25 kW/m2in a flaming (piloted ignition)or non-flaming mode. The smoke produced by the burning specimen in the chamber is measured by a light source – photometer combination. 

The attenuation of the light beam by the smoke is a measure of the optical density or "quantity of smoke " that a material will generate under the given conditions of the test. Two measures are typically reported. DS is an instantaneous measure of the optical density at a particular instant in time and How To Get Rid Of Smoke Odor From Fire is expressed as where V is the volume of the chamber (m3), A is the area of the exposed sample (m2), L is the path length of the light beam through the smoke (m), I0 is the intensity of the light beam before the start of the test, and I is the intensity of the light beam during the test.

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