Smoke Damage >> How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire

Comparison of Fire Performance and Corrosion Work by Chapin et al. [25] evaluated the ability of a variety of standard test methods to evaluate the impact of smoke from local area network (LAN) cables on electrical equipment. Their concern was that the specialized and controlled nature of these tests may prevent them from realistically predicting corrosion and, more importantly, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire overall functionality of electronics exposed to smoke. 

They examined correlation among the standard tests and provided a discussion of the sensitivities and possible sources of error.Although the discussion and findings address a larger number of tests, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire the authors performed experiments with only three previously existing test methods. ASTM test D5485, International Standards Organization (ISO) test DIS 11907-3 and International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC) test 60754-2 are described in section 3.2 of this report. 

These tests burn complete products, individual conductors, or raw materials (individual components of wire insulation) to classify their tendency to cause corrosion. Both the ASTM and ISO tests subject electrically conductive copper corrosion probes to the smoke produced. The change in conductivity of these copper surfaces is used to estimate the amount of metal lost, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire and results are expressed as thickness consumed (ASTM) or percent consumed. 

The IEC test measures pH of gases produced in the burning of a material. Note that the IEC test evaluates individual materials, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire and as such, cable coatings must be separated into their jacket and insulation materials for isolated testing. To complement results from the corrosivity standard, other measurements were made to evaluate the fire behavior of the cable samples. 

The chemical compositions of the cable jacket and insulation materials were determined. Each variety of cable was subjected to the ASTM E1354 cone calorimeter. This uses the same combustion apparatus as the ASTM D5485, but produces heat How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire and smoke release measurements rather than capturing corrosive gasses. 

This information is used in more traditional analysis of flammability How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire and fire hazards. The smoke release data provide interesting context for the corrosivity measurements by allowing one to evaluate the likelihood and severity of fires involving those materials.The authors report that, in the course of previous work, they have observed that smoke most often causes the failure of digital electronic systems by decreasing surface resistivity. 

In an effort to quantify this behavior relative to the corrosivity tests, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire the authors developed a test apparatus to measure changes of surface resistivity of a circuit board exposed to smoke. The tube furnace used in the IEC 60754-2 test was fitted with an exposure chamber into which the products were driven by forced air flow. 

The chamber was used to expose printed circuit boards with an inter digitated comb pattern (similar to those used by SNL for the circuit bridging tests described in Section 2.2). After exposure, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire the targets were tested for current flow with an applied 50 V potential. Leakage currents were tested in a controlled humidity chamber over a range of relative humidity from 30 % to 90 %.

Seven commercially available LAN cables were used in these tests. Three of the varieties were rated for plenum use according to Underwriters Laboratories (UL) test 910, indicating a very low fire hazard. The other cables were rated for other use under different UL and IEC tests. All of the plenum rated cables and How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire some of the non-plenum cables contained large quantities of halogens, which are often cited as a major contributing factor in corrosion caused by smoke [20 -22].

For the purposes of comparison, results have been normalized by the average value from each test method, and How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire the pH measurements for the IEC 60754-2 have been inverted such that higher values indicate higher acidity. Comparisons of the test results and the correlation between tests are shown in Table 7 and Figure 4 calculated as correlations coefficients from the data in reference [25]. 

The plenum-rated cables (cables A,F,I) are easily differentiated from the non-plenum cables by the leakage current test. Leakage currents caused by the plenum cables were 3 to 7 orders of magnitude lower than the highest performing non-plenum cable (K). It may also be possible to make such distinctions based upon smoke load, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire which was higher for non-plenum cables. 

The correlation between smoke load and leakage current is consistent with the premise that leakage currents are the result of circuit bridging by particulates in smoke, as has been found by Chapinet al. [25] and Tanaka [18].This low smoke load produced by plenum cables is not surprising, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire as UL 910, which is based on the method developed by Steiner [26], includes criteria for smoke production as well as heat release rate (HRR) and flame spread. 

UL 910 was specifically designed to limit smoke production from cables in a plenum configuration [27]. Products that pass can be expected to produce very small amounts of smoke.The simple calculation of correlation coefficients could suggest that ASTM D5484 is sensitive to smoke load. However, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire a more careful examination of material composition would indicate that the presence of PVC is the more important factor. 

The three cable products (cables I,G,B) which caused significant corrosion in this test all used PVC in their jacket and/or insulation, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire while the other cables did not. It is interesting to note that cable F contained a low smoke PVC-based compound but produced negligible corrosion in ASTM D5484. The amount of smoke actually produced by this cable was slightly higher than the highly corrosive cable I. 

As both contained similar amounts of chlorine, this suggests that the mechanism used for smoke suppression may also serve to decrease the corrosivity of the combustion products. A larger sample size and How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire a more detailed treatment of the chemistry involved would be required to develop a full understanding of any role that fire retardant compounds may play in corrosion.

Results of the ISO DIS 11907-3 test are more difficult to explain. The three cables which caused corrosion in the ASTM D5484 (cables I,G,B) did so in this test as well. The smoke suppressed PVC cable (F), How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire was comparable to one of the ordinary PVC cables (G). Further, the two non halogenated cables caused between 25 % to 50 % as much corrosion as the PVC cables in this test as opposed to less than 10 % in the ASTM test. 

Chapin et al. [24] argue that the corrosion target used in the ISO test may produce inaccurate results, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire due to circuit bridging. The target tracks material loss in the form of increased resistivity in a closely packet serpentine copper trace on a circuit board. 

They express concern that connections across the board could decrease effective resistance, resulting in underestimation of total mass loss. The only consistent behavior from the IEC 754-2 pH tests was that halogenated polymers produced low pH, How To Remove Smoke Odor From A Kitchen Fire while non-halogenated polymers did not. There was no strong correlation toeither of the direct corrosion tests.

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