Smoke Damage >> How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment

Recommendations for the Selection and Use of Respirators and Protective Clothing for Protection against Biological Agents From the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health The approach to any potentially hazardous environment, including one with biological hazards, must be made with a plan that includes an assessment of hazard and exposure potential, respiratory protection needs, How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment dermal protection needs, entry conditions, exit routes, and decontamination strategies. 

Plans involving a biological hazard should be based on relevant infectious disease or biological safety recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (e.g.,http://emergency.cdc.gov/bioterrorism) and other expert bodies including emergency first responders, law enforcement, and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment public health officials. 

The need for pre/post exposure treatment of first responders with antibiotics, vaccination, or How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment other medications should be determined in consultation with licensed medical personnel.This document is based on current understanding of the potential agents and existing recommendations for biological aerosols and is oriented toward acts of terrorism. 

The recommendations provided here do not address and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment are not applicable to controlled use of biological agents in biosafety laboratories.For information on precautions in the laboratory settings. NIOSH is providing the recommendations in this document on the basis of the following considerations: 

Biological weapons may expose workers to bacteria, viruses, or toxins as fine airborne particles. Biological agents are infectious through one or more of the following mechanisms of exposure, How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment depending upon the particular type of agent: (1) inhalation, with infection through respiratory mucosa or lung tissues; (2) ingestion; (3) contact with the mucous membranes of the eyes or nasal tissues; or (4) penetration of the skin through lesions or abrasions. 

Biological agents, as liquid or solid organic airborne particles, behave the same in the air as inert or How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment inorganic particles because they share the same aerodynamic characteristics. Because biological weapons are particles, they will not permeate the materials used in the construction of respirators or protective clothing in the same way that some chemicals can permeate through them. 

However, biological particles potentially can penetrate through seams, closures, interfaces, pores, and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment gaps in protective apparel. Careful attention to properly selected, assembled and fitted personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential to ensuring necessary protection for first responders. Some devices used for intentional biological terrorism may have the capacity to disseminate large quantities of biological materials in aerosols. 

High levels of protection (i.e., level A ensembles) will be necessary when hazards and airborne concentrations are either unknown or How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment expected to be high. PPE providing lower levels of protection (i.e., level B or C ensembles) are generally allowed once conditions are understood and exposure are determined to be at lower levels. 

Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) NIOSH-approved respirators in conjunction with protective ensembles certified to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards are recommended for responders in situations where the hazard potential from a How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment potential terrorist event exists. 

Respirators and protective ensembles certified for CBRN-rated protection have been evaluated with warfare agents for resistance against permeation and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment penetration of the materials used in their construction (e.g., rubber, elastomeric, barrier, and selectively permeable materials). 

CBRN respirators provide a high level of protection against airborne hazards when properly fitted to the user's face and properly used in an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-compliant respiratory protection program . During an intentional release of a biological agent, How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment a concurrent or secondary release of other types of hazards, such as a chemical, may occur. 

Therefore, when selecting appropriate levels of PPE, information regarding potential of exposures to non-biological hazards should be factored in to any selection decisions.Guidance and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment Standards Associated with the Selection and Use of Protective Clothing and Respirators Respiratory protection and other PPE should be used in the context of a comprehensive program or incident command system that provides for a safety and health program. 

The program should contain the following elements: Job safety analyses and a health and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment safety plan Provision for a health/safety surveillance and medical monitoring program (on-site medical monitoring for fatigue, heat stress, behavioral health, and other elements as appropriate.) Pre-exposure immunization and post-exposure responder prophylaxis and medical monitoring.

When using respiratory protection, the type of respirator is selected on the basis of the hazard and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment its airborne concentration. Recommendations for selection of respirators can be found in theNIOSH Respirator Selection Logic 2004[DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-100]. Additionally, guidance specific for CBRN incidents can be found in the NIOSH document

Guidance on Emergency Responder Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Response to CBRN Terrorism Incidents [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2008-132]For a biological agent, the air concentration of particles will depend upon the method used to release the agent, the initial amount of agent in the dispersal device, the particle size (very small particles will remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods, How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment while large particles fall more quickly out of the air), and the elapsed time since the release. 

Secondary re-aerosolization generated from disturbing the contaminated area may contribute to an increase in particle concentration in the air. NIOSH-approved CBRN self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), which many first responders currently use for entry into potentially hazardous atmospheres, How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment will provide responders with respiratory protection against biological exposures associated with a suspected act of biological terrorism. 

When site concentrations allow for the use of lower levels of protection, NIOSH-approved CBRN full facepiece air-purifying respirators (APRs) or CBRN full face piece powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) may be used.Protective clothing, including garments, gloves and booties, How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment also are necessary for the response to a suspected act of biological terrorism to reduce exposures to potential dermal, chemical, and physical hazards. 

Protective clothing must have physical performance properties adequate for the mission (e.g. tensile strength, puncture resistance, seam breaking strength, abrasion resistance). Protective clothing is used to prevent skin exposures and/or How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment contamination of other clothing. The type of protective clothing needed will depend upon the biological agent, concentration, route of exposure, and anticipated work operations.

NFPA 1994 Standard on Protective Ensembles for First Responders to CBRN Terrorism Incidents (2007 Edition), NFPA 1991 Standard on Vapor Protective Ensembles for Hazardous Materials Emergencies (1995 Edition), NFPA 1999 Standard on Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations (2008 Edition) are How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment nationally accepted and Department of Homeland Security (DHS)-adopted performance standards. 

Protective clothing ensembles certified to these standards should be the first choice when selecting protective clothing for How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment protection against biological agents. Ensembles certified by these standards may be used to meet the applicable level of protection (i.e., A, B, C, and D) outlined by OSHA in the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) standard, Appendix B. 

There are also other protective ensembles and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment clothing items that meet OSHA's specifications available on the market that will provide protection to biological agents.Detailed information on the NFPA standards in relationship to CBRN terrorism events NFPA 1999 Standard on Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations.

2008 Edition specifies design, performance and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment certification requirements for protective clothing, including garments, helmets, gloves, footwear, and face protection devices used by emergency medical responders and medical first receivers. 

This standard includes requirements for a multi-use emergency medical protective ensemble providing minimum protection for upper and How To Remove Toxic Smoke Damage From An Apartment lower torso, head, hands, foot and face protection from only biological agents. Protective ensembles certified to requirements in NFPA 1999 should be considered for protection against biological agents.

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