Smoke Damage >> How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage

A review is presented of the state of the art of smoke production measurement, prediction of smoke impact as part of computer-based fire modeling, and measurement and prediction of the impact of smoke through deposition of soot on and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage corrosion of electrical equipment. 

The literature review on smoke corrosivity testing and damage due to smoke deposition emphasizes(despite extensive research on smoke corrosivity) the lack of validated and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage widely applicable prescriptive or performance based methods to assure electrical equipment survivability given exposure to smoke from a fire. 

Circuit bridging via current leakage through deposited smoke was identified as a potentially important mechanism of electronic and electrical equipment failure during nuclear power plant fires.In the near term, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage assessment of potential damage can reasonably be based on the airborne smoke exposure concentration and the exposure duration. 

Hence, models that can predict the airborne smoke concentration would be sufficient to provide upper limit estimates of potential damage.In the longer term, it would be desirable to develop models that could estimate the deposition behavior of smoke, and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage specifically correlate the combination of deposited and airborne smoke to component damage. 

The Browns Ferry nuclear power plant (NPP) fire in 1975 demonstrated that instrument, control,and power cables are susceptible to fire damage [1-3]. At Browns Ferry, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage over 1,600 cables were damaged by the fire and caused short circuits between energized conductors. In addition to the cable damage, the fire deposited soot throughout the Unit 1 reactor building and in small areas ofthe Unit 2 reactor building. 

Examination of all surfaces of piping, conduit, and other equipment showed limited evidence of chlorine-induced corrosion, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage requiring replacement of affected material and an accelerated inspection program for some stainless steel within the building [4]. In addition to direct damage due to elevated temperature and heat from fires, reports also indicate non-thermal damage to equipment that was exposed to smoke and combustion gases from the fire environment (see, for example, Refs [23-5]). 

Although limited information is evident specifically related to nuclear power plants [4,6,7], How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage damage to electrical systems in other industries from fire has been extensive [5,8], with some resulting in losses in the hundreds of millions of dollars [9]. Some non-thermal effects occur over long time periods and thus would largely impact clean-up and restoration after a fire incident. 

For example, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage corrosion several days after a one hour fire exposure can be several times that initially observed after the exposure [10]. However, shorter term effects have also been documented in major electronics fires. In the Hinsdale Illinois telecommunications central office fire, smoke-induced failures were noted within six hours [5].

Over the past decade, there has been a considerable movement in the nuclear power industry to transition from prescriptive rules and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage practices toward the use of risk information to supplement decision-making. One element crucial in supporting the use of risk-informed applications is the availability of tools to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of fire scenarios. 

Risk informed, performance-based (RI/PB) fire protection often relies on fire modeling to determine the consequences of fires. Estimating target damage is a key part of any fire modeling analysis. Methodologies are available to obtain reasonable quantitative predictions of thermal damage. However, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage the current state of knowledge does not support similar detailed quantitative prediction of smoke damage.

Based on previous Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) testing [11], four modes of failure due to smoke damage have been identified. Of these four failure modes, only one, circuit bridging, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage has been found to be potentially risk significant. Current fire models and data are insufficient at this time to directly assess the risk contribution of circuit bridging faults.

Screening or bounding assessments can be made, How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage but given current knowledge, would be dependent on the application of expert judgment and would have considerable uncertainty. For example NUREG/CR-6850, "Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities" [11],includes the following recommendations related to smoke damage of electrical equipment: 

"If the fire scenario involves an electrical panel, it may be prudent to assume the smoke-induced failure of all digital or integrated circuit components within the originating fire panel regardless of the assumed fire size, intensity, or duration. In the event of a fire involving high-energy electrical components (e.g., MCC, breaker, switch gear, etc.), How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage it may be prudent to assume the smoke-induced failure of components in adjoining panels or cubicles, especially if those cubicles or panels are connected by features like bus ducts or a common ventilation system."

Such broad assumed failures have the potential to over- or under-estimate the hazard depending on the size and spread of fire and the susceptibility of the equipment to fire. In order to assess the potential for damage due to smoke exposure, relationships between smoke exposure and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage the failure of real electronic components need to be established. 

A smoke damage routine developed for a fire model could then assess the near term (during and soon after exposure) damage potential of electronics and electrical components design fire exposures.1.2 Organization of the Report The overall objective of this research program is to develop a better understanding of how fire induced smoke production and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage transport can affect electronic equipment that may be used in an NPP. 

This report presents a review of the measurement of the impact of smoke through deposition of soot on and corrosion of electrical equipment, smoke production measurement, and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage prediction of smoke impact as part of computer-based fire modeling.Chapter 2 presents previous testing of the effects of fire-generated smoke on electronic equipment. 

Studies focused on NPPs and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage on telecommunication equipment are reviewed. A general overview of corrosion of materials exposed to smoke and of existing damage criteria that have been applied are included.Chapter 3 discusses bench- and large-scale testing and test methods that have been used to quantify the production of smoke and its components from a fire.

Chapter 4 provides an assessment of the state of the art in modeling the generation, transport, and deposition of smoke and How To Restore Furniture From Smoke Damage fire gases in current compartment fire models. Chapter 5 identifies future research needs to improve the prediction of smoke transport and its potential impact on NPP equipment.

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