Electronic Restoration >> Water Damage Restoration For Electronics

Second, although self-healing does occur in the conductive polymer due to degradation of the polymer's conductivity at high temperatures, this self-healing mechanism is not thought to be as effective as the self healing mechanism of MnO2-based tantalum capacitors. Decomposition of the conductive polymer is thought to leave behind Water Damage Restoration For Electronics carbonaceous residues which retain some conductivity.

And carbon touching the dielectric's surface is known to enhance the conductivity of tantalum pentoxide dielectric by the mechanism of direct electron injection. No Exothermic Ignition Mechanism Although the absence of readily available oxygen in the Water Damage Restoration For Electronics conductive polymer may work against realization of reliable high-voltage tantalum polymer capacitors, it is certainly a benefit during capacitor failure.

When MnO2-based tantalum capacitors fail, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics it is not uncommon that sufficient heat is produced at the failure site to release substantial local oxygen. This oxygen can combine chemically with the tantalumsubstrate in an uncontrolled exothermic reaction which causes catastrophic instantaneous ignition of theMnO2-based tantalum capacitor.

The dividing line between controlled, successful self-healing and catastrophic ignition is not clearly drawn.But generally speaking, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics MnO2-based tantalum capacitors made from higher CV/gram powders and those with only lightly sintered connections between their tantalum particles appear to be more susceptible toignition. 

Also, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics capacitors used in low impedance, high-current circuits are more susceptible to ignitionrather than self-healing in response to dielectric faults.This uncontrolled ignition mechanism does not occur in tantalum polymer capacitors because there is noplentiful supply of oxygen adjacent to the dielectric. 

However, tantalum polymer capacitors do fail in the short-circuit mode, and if the available current from the circuit is substantial, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics it is possible to achieve sustained combustion of the capacitor and of the surrounding circuitry simply due to the substantial heatgenerated by the high fault currents. Materials and Processing In principle, the processing of tantalum polymer capacitors is quite similar to the processing ofconventional MnO2-based tantalum capacitors. 

The major change is the substitution of conducting polymerfor the MnO2. But other small materials changes may be made to optimize ESR reduction Water Damage Restoration For Electronics and reduce sensitivity to reflow conditions. These smaller changes are of no more significance than the typicalvariability seen between different manufacturers of a generically similar product. 

So the focus of thissection will be on materials Water Damage Restoration For Electronics and processes unique to the manufacture of tantalum polymer capacitors. A variety of materials are available to replace MnO2 as the solid electrolyte in a tantalum capacitor. Four possible materials will be described: tetracyano-quinodimethane (TCNQ) salts, polyaniline (PANI),polypyrole (PPY), and polyethelyne-dioxythiophene (PEDT). 

Other conductive polymers exist that havethe necessary conductivity to replace MnO2, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics but they have not been successfully employed in capacitor manufacturing because of a variety of shortcomings such as poor stability. Two examples are poly phenylene vinylene (PPV) with conductivity of 10-16 S/cm and iodine-doped polyacetylene with conductivity of 100 S/cm. 

TCNQ The first material, tetracyano-quinodimethane (TCNQ) is not strictly a polymer, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics but rather a charge-transfersalt that forms linear chains of molecules which are stacked in layers. Highly polarizable donor moleculescontribute electrons that provide conduction along the chains. One such donor molecule is N-methylphenazinium (NMP).

TCNQ salts made with NMP have been reported to have conductivity exceeding 100 S/cm. This is muchhigher conductivity than MnO2, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics which is generally considered to have conductivity in the neighborhood of 0.1 to 1 S/cm. However, the conductivity of TCNQ is typically in only one dimension (along the chain), so structures that depend on three-dimensional conductivity must rely on compositions that consist of shorter chains in random orientation and effective electrical communication among the chains. 

This Water Damage Restoration For Electronics generally reduces the effective conductivity of the material for capacitor applications. TCNQ is commonly used in wound aluminum foil electrolytic capacitors for power supply applications.There has been good success with this application. Typical ESR performance of these devices is roughly20-30 mΩ. 

The salt is melted and drawn into the pores of the etched aluminum foils and the separatormaterial and allowed to cool. Sanyo is a major supplier of these devices (OS-CON).TCNQ has not found much use in porous tantalum slugs, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics likely because of difficulties impregnating themuch deeper porosity of tantalum anodes and temperature limitations. 

While common aluminum foil is only etched to depths of roughly 30 microns, porous tantalum slugs have pores which reach to their core.These pores are 10 to 50 times deeper and present a more formidable challenge for complete impregnation. Finally, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics there is very little separation between the temperatures needed to melt and impregnate the TCNQsalt and temperatures that begin to decompose the material. 

Capacitors made with TCNQ are not generally stable above roughly 85oC, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics a temperature that would be too limiting for capacitors made from relatively expensive metal tantalum. But this temperature limit is frequently acceptable for less-expensive aluminum capacitors in less-demanding applications. PANI Polyaniline (PANI) is the most thermally stable conductive polymer but is easily de-doped in the presence of water. 

Conductivities up to 10 S/cm have been reported which are high enough to provide a substantial advantage over MnO2, Water Damage Restoration For Electronics but sensitivity to moisture discourages use of PANI in tantalum capacitors. Higher molecular weight dopants are being investigated to overcome the moisture limitation, but at the presenttime, PANI is not used in any commercially available tantalum capacitors. 

However, the material hasfound application in double-layer super-capacitors and other electronic applications. Another concern isthe possible generation of carcinogenic byproducts upon decomposition. PPYPolypyrole (PPY) is the first intrinsically conductive polymer successfully used to manufacture bothaluminum and Water Damage Restoration For Electronics tantalum capacitors. 

The basic raw materials are commonly available Water Damage Restoration For Electronics and relatively inexpensive. Aluminum capacitors based on PPY are manufactured by Panasonic (SP Cap), Rubycon, andothers. Tantalum capacitors based on PPY are manufactured by NEC and Sanyo (POS-CAP). PPY is suitable for both chemical polymerization and electro-chemical polymerization in tantalum capacitors. 

In the chemical polymerization process, the porous element is alternately dipped in monomerand oxidizer solutions with appropriate drying steps between. Contact between the monomer Water Damage Restoration For Electronics and oxidizer initiates polymerization. Afterwards, excess non-reacted materials must be washed out of the porous slug.

A suitable dopant material is added either to the monomer or oxidizer solution to enhance electrical conductivity by providing free electrons. The basic materials are highly reactive and Water Damage Restoration For Electronics care must be taken to control the reaction in order to deposit meaningful amounts of polymer inside the porous slug. Other factors that control the conductivity and morphology of the resulting polymer are temperature and pH.

Hazmat Cleanup

People are always interested in, just what exactly police officers do when they arrive at a crime scene. The following is a step-by-step guideline that all law enforcement officers use. The officers who arrive at a Crime Scene Cleanup Hazmat Cleanup must be very cautious and methodical. T  read more..

Grants For Tornado Damage Tree Removal

Building demolition debris Approximately 300 houses in Lincoln County sustained damage amounting to more than 50 percent of the value of the house. Most of these homeowners chose to sell their properties to the county in a buyout and demolition program. FEMA and the state Community Development Block  read more..

Hoarding And Housecleaning

There are clouds in the painting, of course. Almost any one of us would have included those clouds, thick with electricity and rainwater. And there is the wheat field, smudged out like an empty palm, orange beneath the storm-stricken sun. Surely, many of us would have insisted on the wheat as well.   read more..

Garbage Left By Flooding

Recommendation #8: Modify disaster assistance employee deployment processes to ensure that Incident Management Assistance Teams and other FEMA first responders include one or more debris specialists with the experience and management skills to assist communities in the crucial early stages of planni  read more..

Mold Cause Problems With Allergies

Though disseminated coccidioidomycosis is uncommon, and symptomatic coccidioidal pneumonia usually resolves without therapy, many of these patients are very ill for weeks to months. Galgiani reported that a group of college students in Tucson who had coccidioidomycosis required an average of six cli  read more..

Flood Runner

46. Is there a waiting period for Flood Damage Flood Runner insurance to become effective? Yes. There is a 30-day waiting period before flood coverage goes into effect. The effective date of a new policy will be 12:01 a.m., local time, on the 30th calendar day after the application date and the presentment of premium.&  read more..

Basement Drying

Unprotected building occupants and water restoration workers should be evacuated from the Sewage Cleanup Basement Drying affected areas during the beginning stages of decontamination, sewage cleaning, and disinfection, such as until the sewage has been completely removed and the disinfectants applied. The water restor  read more..

The Best Way To Fix A Wet Basement

Like relocation, demolition is very disruptive for the occupants of the house. Unless you decide to buy an existing house elsewhere, you must find a place to live and to store your furniture and Basement Drying The Best Way To Fix A Wet Basement belongings while your new house is being built. 

  read more..

Mold Mitigation

Most people would not think about their shower leaking. BUT if you have tile shower and do not routinely seal it (suggested by label on sealer) moisture or water will get thru the grout and cause Mold Remediation Mold Mitigation. Also if you natural stone in the shower or water areas then it too must be seal to prevent   read more..

Asbestos Removal Disposal In Ohio

This section applies to all occupational exposures to asbestos in all industries covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) and (3) of this section. This section does not apply to  Asbestos Abatement Asbestos Removal Disposal In Ohio construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b).    read more..