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Although Ike became extra tropical while moving northward over Arkansas, its remnants caused several deaths and produced significant wind damage across the Ohio Valley. At least 28 direct and How To Protect Fences From Intruders indirect deaths were reported in Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. 

In Ohio, almost 2.6 million people lost power with the most extensive damage reported in the areas near Cincinnati, Columbus, and Dayton. The Property Claim Services of the Insurance Services Office estimates that the post-tropical remnants of Ike produced $2.3 billion in non-flooding related insured losses, How To Protect Fences From Intruders which equates to approximately $4.7 billion in damages. 

Insured losses in Ohio are estimated at $1.1 billion,rivaling the 1974 Xenia tornado as the costliest natural disaster in the state's history.CanadaHigh winds and How To Protect Fences From Intruders record rainfall were reported across portions of southern Ontario and Québec from the remnants of Ike. Downed power lines and tree branches in these areas left atleast 50,000 customers without power. 

Heavy rainfall caused some flooding and How To Protect Fences From Intruders washed out several roads. High humidity associated with the system caused an electrical malfunction on oneof the lines of the Montréal subway system, stranding commuters.d. Forecast and Warning Critique Genesis The genesis of Ike was well anticipated, even before the antecedent tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. 

The Atlantic Tropical Weather Outlook (TWO) first mentioned the waveat 1200 UTC 28 August just as it was about to move off the coast, How To Protect Fences From Intruders stating that gradual development was possible over the next couple of days. At this point, the system was given a"medium" chance to develop into a tropical cyclone within the following 48 h. 

By 1200 UTC 29 August, 66 h prior to genesis, How To Protect Fences From Intruders the TWO explicitly mentioned that a tropical depression couldform over the next couple of days. The genesis probability was elevated to "high" at 0600 UTC30 August, exactly 48 h prior to the formation of a tropical depression. Track A verification of official and guidance model track forecasts is given in Table 4. 

Average official track errors for Ike (with number of cases in parentheses) were 17 (50), 32 (48), 46 (46),59 (44), 91 (40), 121 (36), and 166 (32) n mi for the 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h forecasts, How To Protect Fences From Intruders respectively. These errors are significantly lower than the average official track errors (Table 4),ranging from a 50% improvement for the 12 h forecast to a 39% improvement for the 120 h forecast. 

The official track forecasts were better than most of the available guidance, with a fewexceptions. Impressively, How To Protect Fences From Intruders the official track forecasts were better than the GUNA consensus at allforecast times and were only bested by the TVCN consensus at the 72 and 120 h period. Theonly single model that consistently outperformed the official forecast was the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts global model (EMXI). 

EMXI showed particular skill atthe 36-120 h forecast times, How To Protect Fences From Intruders where it performed 20-26% better than the official track forecast.There were three periods during the life of Ike during which most of the track modelguidance showed a consistent bias. The first was around the time Ike reached its peak intensitynorth of the Leeward Islands just before it was driven west-southwestward by the subtropicalhigh. 

The track model guidance during this period had a considerable northward bias, with manyof the models showing a less pronounced west-southwest ward motion How To Protect Fences From Intruders and a subsequent turn tothe northwest across the Bahamas towards South Florida. Only the GFDI and EMXI performedwell during this period by anticipating the west-southwestward motion towards eastern Cuba(Figure 11).

After the west-southwestward dive towards Cuba, model guidance indicated that Ikewould reach the western periphery of the ridge and turn to the northwest. A few of the models, How To Protect Fences From Intruders such as the GFDI, HWFI, and NGPI, were too quick with this scenario and brought Ike over thesoutheastern Gulf of Mexico closer to the west coast of Florida. 

The GFSI and EMXI performedmuch better during this period and were much closer to the actual track of Ike, How To Protect Fences From Intruders whereas the EGRIactually showed a slight left-of-track bias closer to the Yucatan Peninsula.Ike's Texas landfall also highlighted certain model biases as the storm was moving intothe Gulf of Mexico. 

The 2100 UTC 8 September forecast issued by National Hurricane Center (NHC), when Ike was still located near the southern coast of Cuba, indicated a U.S. landfallsomewhere just south of Galveston Bay by 1800 UTC 13 September. However, How To Protect Fences From Intruders in the followingdays many of the models were indicating a strong high developing over the southern U.S. and responded by showing a landfall farther south between Corpus Christi and Brownsville (the 0900UTC 9 September forecast was the farthest south). 

After that point, the models began a slowshift back to the north as it became more apparent that the high would not be strong enough toinduce the westward motion. Again, How To Protect Fences From Intruders only the EMXI showed more consistent and skillfulforecasts, never deviating from a landfall somewhere between High Island and far eastern Matagorda Bay. 

Most of the other major dynamical models showed a persistent westward biasover the western Gulf of Mexico several days before the landfall (Figure 11). While the NHCcone graphic highlighted the area at risk through this period, more quantitatively useful How To Protect Fences From Intruders information was provided by the wind speed and experimental storm surge probability products.

Intensity A verification of official and guidance model intensity forecasts is given in Table 5.Average official intensity errors for Ike (with number of cases in parentheses) were 8 (50), 11(48), 13 (46), 14 (44), 18 (40), 18 (36), and 24 (32) knots for the 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h forecasts, How To Protect Fences From Intruders respectively. 

These are close to the average 5-year official intensity errors for the Atlantic (7, 10, 12, 14, 18, 20, and 22 kt for the 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h forecasts, respectively). Several challenges in forecasting the intensity of Ike include its rapidintensification over the western Atlantic, How To Protect Fences From Intruders the long periods of interaction with land (especiallyCuba), and the anomalous structure the hurricane exhibited while over the Gulf of Mexico

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